Terminology

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Terms included from Glossary page

This page is a glossary of key ME/CFS-related terms. (For help editing this page, see Help:Glossary.)

Symbols and non-Latin characters

-⍺
α
α
Α




α
α α / Α. Greek letter alpha or alfa (symbol), equivalent to "a".
  • α

α / Α. Greek letter alpha or alfa (symbol), equivalent to "a".


beta
β
Β





β
β β / Β. Greek letter beta (symbol), equivalent to "b".
  • β

β / Β. Greek letter beta (symbol), equivalent to "b".


Γ
γ
Γ.





γ
γ γ / Γ. Greek letter gamma/gamme (symbol), third letter of the Greek alphabet.
  • γ

γ / Γ. Greek letter gamma/gamme (symbol), third letter of the Greek alphabet.


Δ
&Delta
δ





δ
δ δ / Δ. Greek letter delta (symbol). Equivalent to a "d".
  • δ

δ / Δ. Greek letter delta (symbol). Equivalent to a "d".


ε
ε





ε
ε ε / Ε. Greek letter epsilon (symbol). Equivalent to an "e".
  • ε

ε / Ε. Greek letter epsilon (symbol). Equivalent to an "e".


Θ
θ
Θ





θ
θ θ / Θ. Greek letter theta/theeta (symbol). Eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, equivalent to "th".
  • θ

θ / Θ. Greek letter theta/theeta (symbol). Eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, equivalent to "th".


Λ
λ
&Lambda





λ
λ λ / Λ. Greek letter lambda/lamda (symbol). Equivalent to the letter "l".
  • λ

λ / Λ. Greek letter lambda/lamda (symbol). Equivalent to the letter "l".


μ
μ g
ug
Μ
μ
-μg
mu
mu-
-mu
-mcg
μg
μg Micrograms can be written as mcg or μg. The symbol μ is Greek letter, equivalent to "mu".
  • μg

Micrograms can be written as mcg or μg. The symbol μ is Greek letter, equivalent to "mu".


Τ
&tau





τ
τ τ / Τ. Greek letter tau (symbol). Last letter of the Greek alphabet. Tau pathologies are a group of neurological disorders.
  • τ

τ / Τ. Greek letter tau (symbol). Last letter of the Greek alphabet. Tau pathologies are a group of neurological disorders.


Ω
&omega
Ω





ω
ω ω / Ω. Greek letter omega (symbol). Last letter of the Greek alphabet.
  • ω

ω / Ω. Greek letter omega (symbol). Last letter of the Greek alphabet.


A

Accuracy






accuracy
accuracy The "closeness of an observation to the true clinical state". With respect to diagnostic tests, "accuracy" means how specific and sensitive the test is.
  • accuracy

The "closeness of an observation to the true clinical state".[1] With respect to diagnostic tests, "accuracy" means how specific and sensitive the test is. [2]


Action for M.E.





AfME
Action for ME
Action for ME (AfME) - Action for ME is a British non-profit organization that was set up in 1987 as The M.E. Action Campaign. Its founders were Martin Lev, Sue Findlay and Clare Francis. In September 1993 it changed its name and logo to Action for ME and Chronic Fatigue. It then changed its name in 1993 to Action for ME.

(AfME) - Action for ME is a British non-profit organization that was set up in 1987 as The M.E. Action Campaign. Its founders were Martin Lev, Sue Findlay and Clare Francis. In September 1993 it changed its name and logo to Action for ME and Chronic Fatigue. It then changed its name in 1993 to Action for ME. [3]


Adverse reactions
Adverse reaction
adverse reactions
side effect
side effects
Side effect
Side effects
Side Effect
Side Effects
adverse drug reaction
adverse reaction
adverse reaction Any unintended or unwanted response to a treatment, whether in a clinical trial or licensed treatment. May be minor or serious.
  • adverse reaction

Any unintended or unwanted response to a treatment, whether in a clinical trial or licensed treatment. May be minor or serious.[4]



Agency for healthcare research and quality





AHRQ
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality is a United States government agency under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Their mission is "to produce evidence to make health care safer, higher quality, more accessible, equitable, and affordable. A representative of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality sat on the (now disbanded) CFSAC committee as an Ex Officio Member.

(AHRQ) - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality is a United States government agency under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Their mission is "to produce evidence to make health care safer, higher quality, more accessible, equitable, and affordable.[5] A representative of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality sat on the (now disbanded) CFSAC committee as an Ex Officio Member.


agonists
Agonists
Agonist





agonist
agonist A chemical that binds to the receptor and stimulates it's function, e.g., morphine is an opioid agonist that binds to the opioid receptor, reducing pain. The opposite of an antagonist.
  • agonist

A chemical that binds to the receptor and stimulates it's function, e.g., morphine is an opioid agonist that binds to the opioid receptor, reducing pain. The opposite of an antagonist.[6][7]




All Party Parliamentary Group on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
All-Party Parliamentary Group
All Party Parliamentary Group
All-Party Parliamentary Group on ME
All Party Parliamentary Group on ME
All-party Parliamentary Group on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
All-party Parliamentary Group on ME
All-party Parliamentary Group


APPG
All-Party Parliamentary Group on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
All-Party Parliamentary Group on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (APPG) - A British group of backbench members of parliament, from all political parties and from Houses of Commons and Lords, who meet to discuss ME.
  • All-Party Parliamentary Group on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

(APPG) - A British group of backbench members of parliament, from all political parties and from Houses of Commons and Lords, who meet to discuss ME.


American Psychiatric Assoc





APA
American Psychiatric Association
American Psychiatric Association (APA) - The main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world. Not to be confused with the American Psychological Association (also APA).
  • American Psychiatric Association

(APA) - The main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.[8] Not to be confused with the American Psychological Association (also APA).


Amygdala
amygdalae
Amygdalae





amygdala
amygdala Part of the brain, within the temporal lobe. Related to memory and emotional behavior.
  • amygdala

Part of the brain, within the temporal lobe. Related to memory and emotional behavior.[9]


anaphylactic shock






anaphylaxis
anaphylaxis "an often severe and sometimes fatal systemic reaction in a susceptible individual upon exposure to a specific antigen (such as wasp venom or penicillin) after previous sensitization". Typically causes breathing problems, fainting or loss of consciousness, fast heartbeat, itching, and hives. (Learn more: www.nhs.uk)
  • anaphylaxis

"an often severe and sometimes fatal systemic reaction in a susceptible individual upon exposure to a specific antigen (such as wasp venom or penicillin) after previous sensitization". Typically causes breathing problems, fainting or loss of consciousness, fast heartbeat, itching, and hives.[10][11] (Learn more: www.nhs.uk)


Antagonist
antagonists
Antagonists





antagonist
antagonist A chemical that reduces or helps block the activity of another chemical in the body. For example, most antihistamines are H1 antagonists because they block the H1 histamine receptor, which helps relieve allergy symptoms. The opposite of an agonist.
  • antagonist

A chemical that reduces or helps block the activity of another chemical in the body. For example, most antihistamines are H1 antagonists because they block the H1 histamine receptor, which helps relieve allergy symptoms. The opposite of an agonist.[12][13]


Antibody
Antibodies
antibodies
Immunoglobulin
immunoglobulin
Immunoglobulins
immunoglobulins
antibody


antibodies
antibodies Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.


Anticholinergic drugs
anticholinergic agonist
anticholinergic agonists
anticholinergic side effects
anticholinergic drugs
anti-cholinergic
anticholinergics
anticholinergic drug
cholinergic antagonists
cholinergic antagonist
ACh
anticholinergic
anticholinergic (ACh) - Involving blocking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Anticholinergic side effects may include dilated pupils in the eyes, photophobia, dry mouth, decreased mucus in the lungs, respiratory depression, decreased gastrointestinal motility, constipation, decreased then increased blood pressure, rapid heartbeat or heart palpitations, urinary retention, vasodilation, drowsiness, confusion, and agitation, and decreased sweating.
  • anticholinergic

(ACh) - Involving blocking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Anticholinergic side effects may include dilated pupils in the eyes, photophobia, dry mouth, decreased mucus in the lungs, respiratory depression, decreased gastrointestinal motility, constipation, decreased then increased blood pressure, rapid heartbeat or heart palpitations, urinary retention, vasodilation, drowsiness, confusion, and agitation, and decreased sweating.[14]:45[15]





Apoptosis
apoptotic
Apoptotic
programmed cell death
Programmed cell death




apoptosis
apoptosis a type of cell death in which a cell, in response to a threat, initiates a series of molecular steps that lead to its orderly death. This is one method the body uses to get rid of unneeded or abnormal cells. This form of cell suicide is also called programmed cell death.
  • apoptosis

a type of cell death in which a cell, in response to a threat, initiates a series of molecular steps that lead to its orderly death. This is one method the body uses to get rid of unneeded or abnormal cells. This form of cell suicide is also called programmed cell death.[16]



Assay
Assays
assays
Assaying
assaying
Assayed
assayed



assay
assay 1. (verb) analysis (as of an ore or drug) to determine the presence, absence, or quantity of one or more components. 2. (noun) In biochemistry, any laboratory protocol used to test a sample for one or more qualities.
  • assay

1. (verb) analysis (as of an ore or drug) to determine the presence, absence, or quantity of one or more components.[17] 2. (noun) In biochemistry, any laboratory protocol used to test a sample for one or more qualities.


Associated New Zealand M.E. Society
Associated New Zealand ME society
Associated New Zealand M.E. society




ANZMES
Associated New Zealand ME Society
Associated New Zealand ME Society (ANZMES) - A New Zealand group for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) patients and their caregivers.

(ANZMES) - A New Zealand group for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) patients and their caregivers.


Association of Young People with M.E.





AYME
Association of Young People with ME
Association of Young People with ME (AYME) - AYME was a UK national charity supporting children and young people affected by ME/CFS with members under 25. It's lead medical advisor was Doctor Esther Crawley. In April 2017 the charity merged with Action for ME, forming its Children's Services department run by Mary-Jane Willows.

(AYME) - AYME was a UK national charity supporting children and young people affected by ME/CFS with members under 25. It's lead medical advisor was Doctor Esther Crawley. In April 2017 the charity merged with Action for ME, forming its Children's Services department run by Mary-Jane Willows.[18]


B

B cells
B-cell
B lymphocyte
B lymphocytes
B-cells




B cell
B cell B lymphocyte, or a type of white blood cell, which is involved in the immune response by secreting antibodies to ward off infections. In mammals, they are mostly matured in the bone marrow.

B lymphocyte, or a type of white blood cell, which is involved in the immune response by secreting antibodies to ward off infections. In mammals, they are mostly matured in the bone marrow. [19]


Bias
Biased
biased





bias
bias Bias in research is "a systematic deviation of an observation from the true clinical state".
  • bias

Bias in research is "a systematic deviation of an observation from the true clinical state".[1]


BPS model
BPS Model
Biopsychosocial model
biopsychosocial
Biopsychosocial
Biopsychosocial Model



BPS
biopsychosocial model
biopsychosocial model (BPS) - A school of thought, usually based in psychology, which claims illness and disease to be the result of the intermingling of biological, psychological and social causes. (Learn more: Biopsychosocial model me-pedia.org)

(BPS) - A school of thought, usually based in psychology, which claims illness and disease to be the result of the intermingling of biological, psychological and social causes. (Learn more: Biopsychosocial model me-pedia.org)


fully blinded
blinded RCT
blind trial
blinding
single-blind
single-blinded
single blinded
single blind


blinded trial
blinded trial A clinical trial is blinded if either the participants or the researchers don't know which treatment group they are allocated to until after the results are interpreted. (Learn more: www.nottingham.ac.uk)
  • blinded trial

A clinical trial is blinded if either the participants or the researchers don't know which treatment group they are allocated to until after the results are interpreted.[20][21] (Learn more: www.nottingham.ac.uk)


British Medical Journal






BMJ
BMJ The BMJ (previously the British Medical Journal) is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
  • BMJ

The BMJ (previously the British Medical Journal) is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.




Bradycardia






bradycardia
bradycardia A slowness of the heartbeat, so that the pulse rate is less than 60 per minute in an adult.

A slowness of the heartbeat, so that the pulse rate is less than 60 per minute in an adult.[22]


Brain stem
Brainstem
brain stem
brainstems




brainstem
brainstem Region of the midbrain in adults, includes midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata and develops.
  • brainstem

Region of the midbrain in adults, includes midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata and develops.[9]


Broca‘s area
Broca’
Broca′s area
Broca's
Broca's Area
Brioca's



Broca's area
Broca's area Region of brain linked to the movement needed for speech. Within the front temporal lobe, In the side of the brain devoted to language (usually the left side).
  • Broca's area

Region of brain linked to the movement needed for speech. Within the front temporal lobe, In the side of the brain devoted to language (usually the left side).[9]


C

Canadian consensus criteria





CCC
Canadian Consensus Criteria
Canadian Consensus Criteria (CCC) - A set of diagnostic criteria used to diagnose ME/CFS, developed by a group of practicing ME/CFS clinicians in 2003. The CCC is often considered to be the most complex criteria, but possibly the most accurate, with the lowest number of patients meeting the criteria. Led to the development of the International Consensus Criteria (ICC) in 2011.

(CCC) - A set of diagnostic criteria used to diagnose ME/CFS, developed by a group of practicing ME/CFS clinicians in 2003. The CCC is often considered to be the most complex criteria, but possibly the most accurate, with the lowest number of patients meeting the criteria. Led to the development of the International Consensus Criteria (ICC) in 2011.[23]



Cartilage
cartilages
Cartilages
cartilaginous
Cartilaginous




cartilage
cartilage firm, whitish, flexible connective tissue found in various forms in the larynx and respiratory tract, in structures such as the external ear, and in the articulating surfaces of joints
  • cartilage

firm, whitish, flexible connective tissue found in various forms in the larynx and respiratory tract, in structures such as the external ear, and in the articulating surfaces of joints [24]





Cell membrane
Cell membranes
cell membranes
Plasma membrane
plasma membrane
Plasma membranes
plasma membranes



cell membrane
cell membrane A very thin membrane, composed of lipids and protein, that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
  • cell membrane

A very thin membrane, composed of lipids and protein, that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.[25]


Centers for Disease Control
Center for Disease Control





CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a U.S. government agency dedicated to epidemiology and public health. It operates under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

(CDC) - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a U.S. government agency dedicated to epidemiology and public health. It operates under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.


Central nervous system
Central Nervous System





CNS
central nervous system
central nervous system (CNS) - One of the two parts of the human nervous system, the other part being the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that travel from the central nervous system into the various organs and tissues of the body.

(CNS) - One of the two parts of the human nervous system, the other part being the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that travel from the central nervous system into the various organs and tissues of the body.


Cerebellum
cerebellar
Cerebellar
cerebella
cerebellums




cerebellum
cerebellum A part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates, beneath the occipital lobe of the cerebrum. Its name reflects the fact that it looks like a smaller version of the cerebrum. Its main known functions are the coordination of unconscious muscle movements and the maintenance of body positional equilibrium.
  • cerebellum

A part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates, beneath the occipital lobe of the cerebrum. Its name reflects the fact that it looks like a smaller version of the cerebrum. Its main known functions are the coordination of unconscious muscle movements and the maintenance of body positional equilibrium.[26]







cerebral
cerebral 1. of or relating to the brain or the intellect 2. of, relating to, affecting, or being the cerebrum.
  • cerebral

1. of or relating to the brain or the intellect 2. of, relating to, affecting, or being the cerebrum.[27]


cerebral blood flow





CBF
cerebral blood flow
cerebral blood flow (CBF) - the amount of blood that goes through the arterial tree in the brain in a given amount of time
  • cerebral blood flow

(CBF) - the amount of blood that goes through the arterial tree in the brain in a given amount of time[28]


Cholinergic
cholinergic agonist
cholinergic agonists
cholinergic side effects
cholinergic effects
cholinergic side effect
Cholinergic agonist
Cholinergic drug
Cholinergic drugs


cholinergic
cholinergic Involving the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Cholinergic side effects include diarrhea, blurred vision, decreased intraocular pressure, contricted pupil in the eyes, sweating, increased saliva and mucus on the lungs, bronchial constriction, increased gastrointestinal tone, decreased blood pressure, slow heart rate, and contraction of bladder detrusor muscle. muscle spasms/cramps, low blood pressure, slowed heart rate, nausea and vomiting, increased saliva and sweating, shortness of breath, and urinating more often.
  • cholinergic

Involving the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Cholinergic side effects include diarrhea, blurred vision, decreased intraocular pressure, contricted pupil in the eyes, sweating, increased saliva and mucus on the lungs, bronchial constriction, increased gastrointestinal tone, decreased blood pressure, slow heart rate, and contraction of bladder detrusor muscle. muscle spasms/cramps, low blood pressure, slowed heart rate, nausea and vomiting, increased saliva and sweating, shortness of breath, and urinating more often.[14][29][30]







Chronic disease
Chronic Disease
chronic diseases
Chronic diseases
Chronic Diseases




chronic disease
chronic disease a disease or condition that usually lasts for 3 months or longer and may get worse over time
  • chronic disease

a disease or condition that usually lasts for 3 months or longer and may get worse over time [31]


Chronic fatigue
Chronic Fatigue





CF
chronic fatigue
chronic fatigue (CF) - Persistent and abnormal fatigue is a symptom, not an illness. It may be caused by depression, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome or many other illnesses. The term "chronic fatigue" should never be confused with the disease chronic fatigue syndrome.

(CF) - Persistent and abnormal fatigue is a symptom, not an illness. It may be caused by depression, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome or many other illnesses. The term "chronic fatigue" should never be confused with the disease chronic fatigue syndrome.[23]


Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome
Chronic Fatigue & Immune Dysfunction Syndrome
Chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome
Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome
chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome



CFIDS
Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome
Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS) - Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome is another term for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, but one which emphasizes the immunological aspects of the disease. Popular in the 1990s, this term has apparently fallen into disuse.

(CFIDS) - Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome is another term for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, but one which emphasizes the immunological aspects of the disease. Popular in the 1990s, this term has apparently fallen into disuse.


Chronic fatigue syndrome
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
C.F.S.




CFS
chronic fatigue syndrome
chronic fatigue syndrome
(CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue without additional symptoms (idiopathic chronic fatigue). Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

(CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue without additional symptoms (idiopathic chronic fatigue). Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.[32]


Chronic fatigue syndrome advisory committee
chronic fatigue syndrome advisory committee





CFSAC
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Advisory Committee
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Advisory Committee (CFSAC) - (sometimes pronounced SIF-SACK) A US government advisory council that met twice per year, covering current topics related to Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Meetings usually lasted for two days and the results were presented to the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS). After 15 years, on September 5, 2018, CFSAC's charter was not renewed by the Department of HHS, effectively dissolving the committee without notice or warning.

(CFSAC) - (sometimes pronounced SIF-SACK) A US government advisory council that met twice per year, covering current topics related to Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Meetings usually lasted for two days and the results were presented to the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS). After 15 years, on September 5, 2018, CFSAC's charter was not renewed by the Department of HHS, effectively dissolving the committee without notice or warning. [33]


clivi
Clivus
Clivi





clivus
clivus the smooth sloping surface on the upper posterior part of the body of the sphenoid bone supporting the pons and the basilar artery
  • clivus

the smooth sloping surface on the upper posterior part of the body of the sphenoid bone supporting the pons and the basilar artery [34]


Circadian rhythm
circadian rhythms
Circadian rhythms
circadian




circadian rhythm
circadian rhythm Physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle, responding mostly to light and dark. Controlled the brain's hypothalamus. (Learn more: www.nigms.nih.gov)
  • circadian rhythm

Physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle, responding mostly to light and dark. Controlled the brain's hypothalamus.[35] (Learn more: www.nigms.nih.gov)


Cholinergic






cholinergic
cholinergic Involving the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Cholinergic side effects include diarrhea, blurred vision, muscle spasms/cramps, low blood pressure, slowed heart rate, nausea and vomiting, increased saliva and sweating, shortness of breath, and urinating more often.
  • cholinergic

Involving the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Cholinergic side effects include diarrhea, blurred vision, muscle spasms/cramps, low blood pressure, slowed heart rate, nausea and vomiting, increased saliva and sweating, shortness of breath, and urinating more often.[36]


Coenzyme Q10
co-enzyme Q10
Co-enzyme Q10
COQ10
ubiquinone
ubiquinol
Ubiquinone
Ubiquinol


CoQ10
coenzyme Q10
coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) - Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone) is found in the mitochondria and, as a component of the electron transport chain, plays an important role in aerobic respiration. The chemically-reduced form of CoQ10 is called ubiquinol.

(CoQ10) - Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone) is found in the mitochondria and, as a component of the electron transport chain, plays an important role in aerobic respiration. The chemically-reduced form of CoQ10 is called ubiquinol.


cofactors
Cofactor
Cofactors





cofactor
cofactor A substance that acts with another substance to bring about certain effects. In biochemistry, a cofactor is a molecule that is necessary for a given biochemical reaction, but is not an enzyme or substrate of the reaction.
  • cofactor

A substance that acts with another substance to bring about certain effects.[37] In biochemistry, a cofactor is a molecule that is necessary for a given biochemical reaction, but is not an enzyme or substrate of the reaction.


Cognition
Cognitive
cognitive
Cognitions
cognitions




cognition
cognition Thought processes, including attention, reasoning, and memory.
  • cognition

Thought processes, including attention, reasoning, and memory.


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive behavioural therapy
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
cognitive behavioural therapy
cognitive-behavioral therapy
Cognitive-behavioral therapy
cognitive-behavioural therapy
Cognitive-behavioural therapy
cognitive behavioral therapies
CBT
cognitive behavioral therapy
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) - A type of psychotherapy geared toward modifying alleged unhealthy thinking, behaviors or illness beliefs. One of the treatment arms used in the controversial PACE trial.

(CBT) - A type of psychotherapy geared toward modifying alleged unhealthy thinking, behaviors or illness beliefs. One of the treatment arms used in the controversial PACE trial.











CR
creatine
creatine (CR) - A natural substance that turns into creatine phosphate in the body, which helps make ATP. ATP provides the energy for muscles Often taken as a supplement to improve sports performance. (Learn more: www.webmd.com)

(CR) - A natural substance that turns into creatine phosphate in the body, which helps make ATP. ATP provides the energy for muscles Often taken as a supplement to improve sports performance.[38] (Learn more: www.webmd.com)


cytokines
Cytokine
Cytokines





cytokine
cytokine any class of immunoregulatory proteins secreted by cells, especially immune cells. Cytokines are small proteins important in cell signaling that modulate the immune system. (Learn more: me-pedia.org)

any class of immunoregulatory proteins secreted by cells, especially immune cells. Cytokines are small proteins important in cell signaling that modulate the immune system.[39] (Learn more: me-pedia.org)


cytokine storms
Cytokine storm
Cytokine storms





cytokine storm
cytokine storm an uncontrolled, sometimes life-threatening, excessive immune response, involving very high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and widespread tissue damage.

an uncontrolled, sometimes life-threatening, excessive immune response, involving very high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and widespread tissue damage.[40][41]


Cytomegalovirus





CMV
cytomegalovirus
cytomegalovirus (CMV) - A common herpesvirus found in humans. Like other herpesviruses, it is a life-long infection that remains in a latent state inside the human body, until it is 'reactivated' by appropriate conditions. CMV infects between 60% to 70% of adults in industrialized countries and close to 100% in emerging countries. Much is unknown about this virus, although it has been found in salivary glands and myeloid blood cells such as monocytes. It has also been linked to the development of certain cancers. Congenital CMV is a leading infectious cause of deafness, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability. A common treatment for CMV is valganciclovir, commonly known as Valcyte.

(CMV) - A common herpesvirus found in humans. Like other herpesviruses, it is a life-long infection that remains in a latent state inside the human body, until it is 'reactivated' by appropriate conditions. CMV infects between 60% to 70% of adults in industrialized countries and close to 100% in emerging countries. Much is unknown about this virus, although it has been found in salivary glands and myeloid blood cells such as monocytes. It has also been linked to the development of certain cancers. Congenital CMV is a leading infectious cause of deafness, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability. A common treatment for CMV is valganciclovir, commonly known as Valcyte.[42]


D

DSM-4
DSM4
DSM-5
DSM5
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
DSM-IV
DSM-III
DSM-III-R
DSM-V
DSM
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) - A psychiatric reference book published by the American Psychiatric Association, often referred to as "the psychiatrist's Bible". Although the most recent version (DSM-5) purports to be the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders, the editors of both previous versions of the manual have heavily criticized the current version due to the climate of secrecy that shrouded the development of the latest version. 69% of the people who worked on DSM-5 reported having ties to the pharmaceutical industry. Dr. Allen Frances, who headed the development of the previous version, warned of dangerous unintended consequences such as new false 'epidemics'. The British Psychological Society criticized DSM-5 diagnoses as "clearly based largely on social norms, with 'symptoms' that all rely on subjective judgements" and expressed a major concern that "clients and the general public are negatively affected by the continued and continuous medicalisation of their natural and normal responses to their experiences". A petition signed by over 13,000 mental health professionals stated that the lowered diagnostic thresholds in DSM-5, combined with entirely subjective criteria based on western social norms, would "lead to inappropriate medical treatment of vulnerable populations". The director of the US National Institute of Mental Health, Dr. Thomas R. Insel, pointed out that the diagnoses in DSM-5 had no scientific validity whatsoever. (Learn more: www.scientificamerican.com)
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

(DSM) - A psychiatric reference book published by the American Psychiatric Association, often referred to as "the psychiatrist's Bible". Although the most recent version (DSM-5) purports to be the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders, the editors of both previous versions of the manual have heavily criticized the current version due to the climate of secrecy that shrouded the development of the latest version. 69% of the people who worked on DSM-5 reported having ties to the pharmaceutical industry.[43] Dr. Allen Frances, who headed the development of the previous version, warned of dangerous unintended consequences such as new false 'epidemics'.[44] The British Psychological Society criticized DSM-5 diagnoses as "clearly based largely on social norms, with 'symptoms' that all rely on subjective judgements" and expressed a major concern that "clients and the general public are negatively affected by the continued and continuous medicalisation of their natural and normal responses to their experiences". A petition signed by over 13,000 mental health professionals stated that the lowered diagnostic thresholds in DSM-5, combined with entirely subjective criteria based on western social norms, would "lead to inappropriate medical treatment of vulnerable populations".[45] The director of the US National Institute of Mental Health, Dr. Thomas R. Insel, pointed out that the diagnoses in DSM-5 had no scientific validity whatsoever.[46] (Learn more: www.scientificamerican.com)



dorsal root ganglia
dorsal root ganglionitis





DRG
dorsal root ganglion
dorsal root ganglion (DRG) - A group of nerve cells in the spinal cord. (Learn more: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)

(DRG) - A group of nerve cells in the spinal cord.[47] (Learn more: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)


fully blinded
double-blinded
double blinding
full blinding
double blinded
double blind
double-blind
fully blinded


double blinded trial
double blinded trial A clinical trial is double blinded if neither the participants nor the researchers know which treatment group they are allocated to until after the results are interpreted. This reduces bias. (Learn more: www.nottingham.ac.uk)
  • double blinded trial

A clinical trial is double blinded if neither the participants nor the researchers know which treatment group they are allocated to until after the results are interpreted. This reduces bias.[20][21] (Learn more: www.nottingham.ac.uk)


E

Endogenous






endogenous
endogenous Growing or originating from within an organism.
  • endogenous

Growing or originating from within an organism.[48]


Energy envelope theory
energy envelope theory
energy envelope





Energy Envelope Theory
Energy Envelope Theory A self-management tool developed and tested by Dr. Leonard Jason to reduce symptom severity and the frequency of post-exertional malaise or relapses for people with ME/CFS. According to this theory, ME/CFS patients should not expend more energy than they perceive they have, as this results in post-exertional malaise and higher disability. Instead patients are advised to stay within their energy envelope, meaning the physical limits the disease has imposed upon them. As the energy envelope theory also cautions about the dangers of under-exertion, its principles are almost identical to ‘pacing’, an activity management strategy for ME patients devised by Ellen Goudsmit in the UK.

A self-management tool developed and tested by Dr. Leonard Jason to reduce symptom severity and the frequency of post-exertional malaise or relapses for people with ME/CFS. According to this theory, ME/CFS patients should not expend more energy than they perceive they have, as this results in post-exertional malaise and higher disability. Instead patients are advised to stay within their energy envelope, meaning the physical limits the disease has imposed upon them.[49] As the energy envelope theory also cautions about the dangers of under-exertion, its principles are almost identical to ‘pacing’, an activity management strategy for ME patients devised by Ellen Goudsmit in the UK.[50]


Enterovirus
enteroviruses
Enteroviruses
enteroviral
Enteroviral




enterovirus
enterovirus A genus of RNA viruses which typically enter the body through the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems and sometimes spread to the central nervous system or other parts of the body, causing neurological, cardiac, and other damage. Since the first reports of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), enteroviruses have been suspected as a cause of ME. Enteroviruses have also been implicated as the cause of Type I diabetes, congestive heart failure, and other conditions. Enteroviruses include poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, and many others. New enteroviruses and new strains of existing enteroviruses are continuously being discovered. (Learn more: viralzone.expasy.org)

A genus of RNA viruses which typically enter the body through the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems and sometimes spread to the central nervous system or other parts of the body, causing neurological, cardiac, and other damage. Since the first reports of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), enteroviruses have been suspected as a cause of ME. Enteroviruses have also been implicated as the cause of Type I diabetes, congestive heart failure, and other conditions. Enteroviruses include poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, and many others. New enteroviruses and new strains of existing enteroviruses are continuously being discovered. (Learn more: viralzone.expasy.org)


Enzyme
enzymes
Enzymes





enzyme
enzyme a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.

a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.[51]


Epigenome
epigenomes
Epigenomes





epigenome
epigenome all of the chemical compounds that are not part of the DNA sequence, but are on or attached to DNA as a way to regulate gene activity
  • epigenome

all of the chemical compounds that are not part of the DNA sequence, but are on or attached to DNA as a way to regulate gene activity [52]


etiological
Etiology
Etiological





etiology
etiology The cause of origin, especially of a disease.

The cause of origin, especially of a disease.[53]


Eukaryote
eukaryotes
Eukaryotes
eukaryotic
Eukaryotic
eucaryote
Eucaryote
eucaryotes
Eucaryotes
eucaryotic
eukaryote
eukaryote any cell or organism that possesses a clearly defined nucleus, unlike bacteria. Eukaryotes include yeast, fungus, plants, and animals.
  • eukaryote

any cell or organism that possesses a clearly defined nucleus, unlike bacteria.[54] Eukaryotes include yeast, fungus, plants, and animals.



expectorants
Expectorant
Antitussive
antitussive
antitussives
Antitussives
Expectorants



expectorant
expectorant An antitussive is a cough suppressant, an expectorant is a cough suppressant that helps someone discharge or cough up mucus.
  • expectorant

An antitussive is a cough suppressant, an expectorant is a cough suppressant that helps someone discharge or cough up mucus.[55][56]


Extracellular Vesicle
extracellular vesicles
Extracellular Vesicles
microvesicle
microvesicles
exosome
Exosome
exosomes
exosomal
Exosomal
extracellular vesicle
extracellular vesicle An extracellular vesicle (sometimes abbreviated EV) is a piece of a cell that has broken off and formed a separate membrane-bound vesicle. A membrane-bound vesicle is like a bubble, or like a mini-cell, in that it has a membrane surrounding some liquid. An extracellular vesicle may also contain some parts of the cell from which the extracellular vesicle arose. There are currently two types of extracellular vesicles: "exosomes" and "microvesicles". An "exosome" is an extracellular vesicle that began inside the cell as an intracellular vesicle known as an "endosome". A "microvesicle" is an extracellular vesicle that begins at the cell surface, and pinches off the cell's own membrane to form a separate vesicle. (Learn more: journals.physiology.org)
  • extracellular vesicle

An extracellular vesicle (sometimes abbreviated EV) is a piece of a cell that has broken off and formed a separate membrane-bound vesicle. A membrane-bound vesicle is like a bubble, or like a mini-cell, in that it has a membrane surrounding some liquid. An extracellular vesicle may also contain some parts of the cell from which the extracellular vesicle arose. There are currently two types of extracellular vesicles: "exosomes" and "microvesicles". An "exosome" is an extracellular vesicle that began inside the cell as an intracellular vesicle known as an "endosome". A "microvesicle" is an extracellular vesicle that begins at the cell surface, and pinches off the cell's own membrane to form a separate vesicle.[57] (Learn more: journals.physiology.org)


F

Foramen magnum
Foramen Magnum





foramen magnum
foramen magnum the large opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes to merge with the lower brain
  • foramen magnum

the large opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes to merge with the lower brain[58]


Fukuda diagnostic criteria
Fukuda Criteria
Fukuda Diagnostic Criteria





Fukuda criteria
Fukuda criteria The most commonly used diagnostic criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome, created by the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC).

The most commonly used diagnostic criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome, created by the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC).[59]


G

ganglia
ganglions





ganglion
ganglion A ganglion is a group of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system. Plural: ganglia / ganglions
  • ganglion

A ganglion is a group of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system. Plural: ganglia / ganglions [60]


gaslit
medical gaslighting
gaslight
Gaslighting
Gaslight
gaslight
gaslights
to gaslight
Medical gaslighting


gaslighting
gaslighting gaslighting is a form of emotional abuse which involves persistently denying or refusing to accept facts, and frequently leads to the other person doubting their own experiences. Medical gaslighting is when doctors or health health blame a patient's symptoms on psychological factors or deny the patient's illness entirely, for example wrongly telling patients that they are not sick.

gaslighting is a form of emotional abuse which involves persistently denying or refusing to accept facts, and frequently leads to the other person doubting their own experiences.[61] Medical gaslighting is when doctors or health health blame a patient's symptoms on psychological factors or deny the patient's illness entirely, for example wrongly telling patients that they are not sick.[62]


Genome
genomes
Genomes





genome
genome an organism's complete set of DNA, including all of its genes
  • genome

an organism's complete set of DNA, including all of its genes [63]



Glutamate
glutamic acid
Glutamic acid
Glutamic Acid




Glu
glutamate
glutamate (Glu) - Glutamate is one of the amino acids used by the body to make proteins. It is a salt or ester of glutamic acid, and the terms glutamate and glutamic acid are often used interchangeably. It also functions as the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

(Glu) - Glutamate is one of the amino acids used by the body to make proteins. It is a salt or ester of glutamic acid, and the terms glutamate and glutamic acid are often used interchangeably. It also functions as the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. [64][65]



Graded Exercise Therapy
Graded exercise therapy





GET
graded exercise therapy
graded exercise therapy (GET) - A gradual increase in exercise or activity, according to a pre-defined plan. Focuses on overcoming the patient's alleged unhelpful illness beliefs that exertion can exacerbate symptoms, rather than on reversing physical deconditioning. Considered controversial, and possibly harmful, in the treatment or management of ME. One of the treatment arms of the controversial PACE trial.

(GET) - A gradual increase in exercise or activity, according to a pre-defined plan. Focuses on overcoming the patient's alleged unhelpful illness beliefs that exertion can exacerbate symptoms, rather than on reversing physical deconditioning. Considered controversial, and possibly harmful, in the treatment or management of ME. One of the treatment arms of the controversial PACE trial.[66]



leafy greens
leafy Feb vegetables
green, leafy veg
green, leafy
green and leafy
leafy greens



green, leafy vegetables
green, leafy vegetables A group of vegetables with many health benefits. Includes spinach, kale, arugula (rocket), collard greens, romaine lettuce, bok choy, mustard greens and chard. Too many may reduce the effects of perscription blood thinners.
  • green, leafy vegetables

A group of vegetables with many health benefits. Includes spinach, kale, arugula (rocket), collard greens, romaine lettuce, bok choy, mustard greens and chard. Too many may reduce the effects of perscription blood thinners. [67]

H

Heart rate
Heart Rate





HR
heart rate
heart rate (HR) - the number of times the heart beats within a certain time period, usually a minute.
  • heart rate

(HR) - the number of times the heart beats within a certain time period, usually a minute. [68]


Heart rate monitor
Heart Rate Monitor
heart rate monitors
Heart rate monitors
Heart Rate Monitors



HRM
heart rate monitor
heart rate monitor (HRM) - A device that measures your heart rate (pulse rate). Heart rate monitors may come as a chest strap, wrist strap, smartwatch, or even as a mobile phone app. Heart rate monitors are often used by ME/CFS patients to pace their exertion, in order to avoid post-exertional malaise (PEM). For more information, see pacing with a heart rate monitor.
  • heart rate monitor

(HRM) - A device that measures your heart rate (pulse rate). Heart rate monitors may come as a chest strap, wrist strap, smartwatch, or even as a mobile phone app. Heart rate monitors are often used by ME/CFS patients to pace their exertion, in order to avoid post-exertional malaise (PEM). For more information, see pacing with a heart rate monitor.


Heart rate variability
Heart Rate Variability





HRV
heart rate variability
heart rate variability (HRV) - A measurement of the variability of the heart rate over time. When the heart rate is consistent, there will be a low heart rate variability. When the heart rate is constantly changing, there will be a high heart rate variability. Heart rate variability is often used by ME/CFS patients to monitor their autonomic nervous system, as high heart rate variability is associated with the sympathetic nervous system and low heart rate variability is associated with the parasympathetic nervous system.

(HRV) - A measurement of the variability of the heart rate over time. When the heart rate is consistent, there will be a low heart rate variability. When the heart rate is constantly changing, there will be a high heart rate variability. Heart rate variability is often used by ME/CFS patients to monitor their autonomic nervous system, as high heart rate variability is associated with the sympathetic nervous system and low heart rate variability is associated with the parasympathetic nervous system.


Hepatic






hepatic
hepatic involving or associated with the liver
  • hepatic

involving or associated with the liver [69]


Hippocampus
hippocampi
Hippocampi





hippocampus
hippocampus The hippocampus consists of gray matter deep in the temporal lobe of the brain. Very important for forming long-term memories. Plural: hippocampi.

The hippocampus consists of gray matter deep in the temporal lobe of the brain. Very important for forming long-term memories. Plural: hippocampi.[9]



Holistic






holistic
holistic Treating mind, body and spirit together, with the aim of achieving wellness and good health. May be within modern medicine or alternative / traditional medicine.
  • holistic

Treating mind, body and spirit together, with the aim of achieving wellness and good health.[70] May be within modern medicine or alternative / traditional medicine.


Homeopathy
homeopathic
Homeopathic
homeopath
Homeopath




homeopathy
homeopathy Alternative medicine based on the idea that the lower the dose of medication, the more effective it is. Many homeopathic remedies are so diluted that none of the original substance remains. Others may contain substantial amounts of active ingredients that may cause side effects or drug interactions. (Learn more: www.nccih.nih.gov)
  • homeopathy

Alternative medicine based on the idea that the lower the dose of medication, the more effective it is. Many homeopathic remedies are so diluted that none of the original substance remains. Others may contain substantial amounts of active ingredients that may cause side effects or drug interactions.[70] (Learn more: www.nccih.nih.gov)



Human leukocyte antigen complex
Human Leukocyte Antigen Complex
human leucocyte antigen complex
Human leucocyte antigen complex
Human Leucocyte Antigen Complex
HLA complex
HLA Complex


HLA
human leukocyte antigen complex
human leukocyte antigen complex (HLA) - A set of genes responsible for a given person's immune response to potential threats. Specifically, HLA genes encode proteins which help the immune system to distinguish the body's own proteins from proteins which are made by foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses. The HLA complex can vary greatly from person to person, generating unique immune and allergic responses. (Learn more: mecfsresearchreview.me)

(HLA) - A set of genes responsible for a given person's immune response to potential threats. Specifically, HLA genes encode proteins which help the immune system to distinguish the body's own proteins from proteins which are made by foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses. The HLA complex can vary greatly from person to person, generating unique immune and allergic responses. (Learn more: mecfsresearchreview.me)



Hypoglycemia
hypoglycemic
Hypoglycemic
hypoglycemics
Hypoglycemics
hypoglycaemia
Hypoglycaemia
hypoglycaemic
Hypoglycaemic


hypoglycemia
hypoglycemia abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood
  • hypoglycemia

abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood [71]







hypothalamus
hypothalamus Major region of the brain that coordinates autonomic and endocrine control of homeostasis.

Major region of the brain that coordinates autonomic and endocrine control of homeostasis.[9]


I

Iatrogenesis
Iatrogenic
iatrogenic





iatrogenesis
iatrogenesis Accidental harm caused by a doctor, by medical treatment, or by diagnostic procedures.
  • iatrogenesis

Accidental harm caused by a doctor, by medical treatment, or by diagnostic procedures.[72]





Immunologist
immunologists
Immunologists
clinical immunologist




immunologist
immunologist A clinical immunologist is medical doctor specializing immune system problems that lead to infections, immunodeficiency disorders, autoimmune diseases, and autoinflammatory diseases including anaphylaxis ans allergies
  • immunologist

A clinical immunologist is medical doctor specializing immune system problems that lead to infections, immunodeficiency disorders, autoimmune diseases, and autoinflammatory diseases including anaphylaxis ans allergies [73]


immunomodulatory
Immunomodulator
Immunomodulatory
immunomodulators
Immunomodulators




immunomodulator
immunomodulator a substance that affects the functioning of the immune system

a substance that affects the functioning of the immune system [74]







IDO
indole
indole (IDO) - a signalling molecule produced by bacteria as a result of metabolising tryptophan, found in the intestines

(IDO) - a signalling molecule produced by bacteria as a result of metabolising tryptophan, found in the intestines [75][76][77]


indole propionate
indole propionic acid
indole-3-propionic acid




IPA
indoleproprionate
indoleproprionate (IPA) - a small molecule produced in the gut, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties
  • indoleproprionate

(IPA) - a small molecule produced in the gut, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [78][79]


Indoleamine
Indoleamines
indoleamines
indoleamine-




IDO
indoleamine
indoleamine (IDO) - any derivatives of an indole (e.g., serotonin, tryptophan) that contain an amine group
  • indoleamine

(IDO) - any derivatives of an indole (e.g., serotonin, tryptophan) that contain an amine group [80]



Institute of Medicine Report
IOM Report





IOM report
Institute of Medicine report
Institute of Medicine report (IOM report) - A report that was commissioned by the U.S. government and was published by the Institute of Medicine on February 10, 2015. The report was titled "Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an Illness" and proposed the term Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). Among its key findings were that "This disease is characterized by profound fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep abnormalities, autonomic manifestations, pain, and other symptoms that are made worse by exertion of any sort." The report further stated "Between 836,000 and 2.5 million Americans suffer from myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome."

(IOM report) - A report that was commissioned by the U.S. government and was published by the Institute of Medicine on February 10, 2015. The report was titled "Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an Illness" and proposed the term Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). Among its key findings were that "This disease is characterized by profound fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep abnormalities, autonomic manifestations, pain, and other symptoms that are made worse by exertion of any sort." The report further stated "Between 836,000 and 2.5 million Americans suffer from myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome."


international classification of diseases
International classification of diseases
International Classification of Disease
international classification of disease
International classification of disease
ICD-10
ICD-10-CM
ICD-11


ICD
International Classification of Diseases
International Classification of Diseases (ICD) - A system of medical diagnostic codes, created by the World Health Organization (WHO), to classify diseases and other health related conditions for the purpose of international diagnostic consistency. By having common diagnostic codes around the world, health researchers are better able to quantify and track disease burdens. The most current version is called ICD-11. (Learn more: www.who.int)

(ICD) - A system of medical diagnostic codes, created by the World Health Organization (WHO), to classify diseases and other health related conditions for the purpose of international diagnostic consistency. By having common diagnostic codes around the world, health researchers are better able to quantify and track disease burdens. The most current version is called ICD-11. (Learn more: www.who.int)


International consensus criteria





ICC
International Consensus Criteria
International Consensus Criteria (ICC) - A set of diagnostic criteria, based on the Canadian Consensus Criteria, that argued for the abandonment of the term "chronic fatigue syndrome" and encouraged the sole use of the term "myalgic encephalomyelitis".

(ICC) - A set of diagnostic criteria, based on the Canadian Consensus Criteria, that argued for the abandonment of the term "chronic fatigue syndrome" and encouraged the sole use of the term "myalgic encephalomyelitis".


invisible disease






invisible illness
invisible illness A chronic condition or illness, such as ME/CFS, which may not be apparent to others. Sufferers may look healthy, yet be in poor health. Symptoms of the illness may not be visible and can be misunderstood or go unnoticed by others. Also, patients may wind up secluded or homebound due to the illness and become "invisible".
  • invisible illness

A chronic condition or illness, such as ME/CFS, which may not be apparent to others. Sufferers may look healthy, yet be in poor health. Symptoms of the illness may not be visible and can be misunderstood or go unnoticed by others. Also, patients may wind up secluded or homebound due to the illness and become "invisible".


J

K

L


light-headedness
light headedness
Lightheadedness
Light-headedness
Light headedness
Light Headedness
light headed
Light headed
feeling faint
faintness
lightheadedness
lightheadedness the condition of being dizzy or on the verge of fainting
  • lightheadedness

the condition of being dizzy or on the verge of fainting[81]


l






limbic cortex
limbic cortex Part of the brain (within the cerebral cortex) involved in emotion, memory and behavior. Part of the limbic system.
  • limbic cortex

Part of the brain (within the cerebral cortex) involved in emotion, memory and behavior. Part of the limbic system.[60]


Limbic system
Limbic System
limbic firing
limbic misfiring
limbic response
limbic responses



limbic system
limbic system The limbic system is a group of structures between the forebrain and hindbrain mostly linked to emotions, memories and behavior. Includes the amygdala, limbic cortex, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus and hippocampal formation, dentate gyrus, subicular complex and septal area.
  • limbic system

The limbic system is a group of structures between the forebrain and hindbrain mostly linked to emotions, memories and behavior. Includes the amygdala, limbic cortex, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus and hippocampal formation, dentate gyrus, subicular complex and septal area.[60][82]


M

Magnetic levitation device
Magnetic Levitation Device





magnetic levitation device
magnetic levitation device A device which uses ferrofluid (a liquid which can become magnetized) in a glass capillary tube surrounded by magnets. This creates a density gradient and cells move to their respective densities within the tube. According to Ron Davis, white blood cells in CFS patients may be less dense than those of healthy controls, indicating the possible use of the device as an inexpensive diagnostic test. (Learn more: www.omf.ngo)
  • magnetic levitation device

A device which uses ferrofluid (a liquid which can become magnetized) in a glass capillary tube surrounded by magnets. This creates a density gradient and cells move to their respective densities within the tube. According to Ron Davis, white blood cells in CFS patients may be less dense than those of healthy controls, indicating the possible use of the device as an inexpensive diagnostic test. (Learn more: www.omf.ngo)


Mass spectrometer
Mass Spectrometer
mass spec





mass spectrometer
mass spectrometer A device which converts molecules to ions, or charged particles. It then uses magnetic and electric fields to sort the ions according to their mass (similar to weight) and charge, in order to identify the molecules or measure their characteristics.
  • mass spectrometer

A device which converts molecules to ions, or charged particles. It then uses magnetic and electric fields to sort the ions according to their mass (similar to weight) and charge, in order to identify the molecules or measure their characteristics.


Mastocytosis






mastocytosis
mastocytosis A type of mast cell disease in which chronic symptoms are related to overproduction or over-accumulation of mast cells. Not to be confused with Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS), where there are normal numbers of mast cells, but abnormal activity.

A type of mast cell disease in which chronic symptoms are related to overproduction or over-accumulation of mast cells. Not to be confused with Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS), where there are normal numbers of mast cells, but abnormal activity.[83]



CFS/ME
ME / CFS
CFS / ME
M.E./CFS
ME/C.F.S.
M.E./C.F.S.
CFS/M.E.
C.F.S./ME
C.F.S./M.E.


ME/CFS
ME/CFS
An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.



MUS
medically unexplained symptoms
Medically unexplained physical symptoms
Medically unexplained symptoms
Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms
Medically Unexplained Symptoms
persistent physical symptoms


MUPS
medically unexplained physical symptoms
medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) - Technically, this term means that no cause or explanation for the patient's symptoms has yet been found. However, patients diagnosed with "MUPS" are generally lumped into a psychosomatic, or psychologically-caused category by those in the medical profession, without any scientific basis for doing so.

(MUPS) - Technically, this term means that no cause or explanation for the patient's symptoms has yet been found. However, patients diagnosed with "MUPS" are generally lumped into a psychosomatic, or psychologically-caused category by those in the medical profession, without any scientific basis for doing so.



Membrane
membranes
Membranes
membranous
Membranous




membrane
membrane The word "membrane" can have different meanings in different fields of biology. In cell biology, a membrane is a layer of molecules that surround its contents. Examples of cell-biology membranes include the "cell membrane" that surrounds a cell, the "mitochondrial membranes" that form the outer layers of mitochondria, and the "viral envelope" that surrounds enveloped viruses. In anatomy or tissue biology, a membrane is a barrier formed by a layer of cells. Examples of anatomical membranes include the pleural membranes that surrounds the lungs, the pericardium which surrounds the heart, and some of the layers within the blood-brain barrier.
  • membrane

The word "membrane" can have different meanings in different fields of biology. In cell biology, a membrane is a layer of molecules that surround its contents. Examples of cell-biology membranes include the "cell membrane" that surrounds a cell, the "mitochondrial membranes" that form the outer layers of mitochondria, and the "viral envelope" that surrounds enveloped viruses. In anatomy or tissue biology, a membrane is a barrier formed by a layer of cells. Examples of anatomical membranes include the pleural membranes that surrounds the lungs, the pericardium which surrounds the heart, and some of the layers within the blood-brain barrier.


metabolic trap
Metabolic trap
Metabolic Trap





metabolic trap hypothesis
metabolic trap hypothesis An hypothesis which proposes that the normal metabolic functioning of the cell has become "trapped" in an abnormal state, which may lead to body-wide symptoms.

An hypothesis which proposes that the normal metabolic functioning of the cell has become "trapped" in an abnormal state, which may lead to body-wide symptoms.


Metabolite
metabolites
Metabolites





metabolite
metabolite A chemical compound produced by, or involved in, metabolism. The term is often used to refer to the degradation products of drugs in the body.
  • metabolite

A chemical compound produced by, or involved in, metabolism. The term is often used to refer to the degradation products of drugs in the body.


Metabolomics
metabolomic
Metabolomic





metabolomics
metabolomics The analysis of the chemical metabolism within cells, tissues or organisms. The term is often used to refer to the full set of metabolites found in a cell in a given environment.

The analysis of the chemical metabolism within cells, tissues or organisms. The term is often used to refer to the full set of metabolites found in a cell in a given environment.


Microbiome






microbiome
microbiome The full collection of microscopic organisms (especially bacteria and fungi) which are present in a particular environment, particularly inside the human body.

The full collection of microscopic organisms (especially bacteria and fungi) which are present in a particular environment, particularly inside the human body.


Microglia
micro-glia
Micro-glia
microglial
Microglial




microglia
microglia A type of immune cell, called a macrophage, that lives in the brain. For historical reasons, macrophages have different names based on the part of the body that they normally live in. Macrophages that normally live in the blood are called monocytes. Macrophages that normally live in the skin are called Langerhans cells. Macrophages that normally live in the liver are called Kupffer cells. And macrophages that normally live in the central nervous system are called microglia. Microglia were originally classified as glial cells, under the assumption that the cells had a merely structural function, before it was realized that the cells were in fact immune cells. As the "sentinel cells" of the central nervous system, microglia survey their environment for abnormalities such as infection or tissue damage, and then initiate an immune response to fight the infection or repair the tissue damage.

A type of immune cell, called a macrophage, that lives in the brain. For historical reasons, macrophages have different names based on the part of the body that they normally live in. Macrophages that normally live in the blood are called monocytes. Macrophages that normally live in the skin are called Langerhans cells. Macrophages that normally live in the liver are called Kupffer cells. And macrophages that normally live in the central nervous system are called microglia. Microglia were originally classified as glial cells, under the assumption that the cells had a merely structural function, before it was realized that the cells were in fact immune cells. As the "sentinel cells" of the central nervous system, microglia survey their environment for abnormalities such as infection or tissue damage, and then initiate an immune response to fight the infection or repair the tissue damage.[84]


migraineurs






migraineur
migraineur Someone who experiences migraines (Learn more: www.merriam-webster.com)
  • migraineur

Someone who experiences migraines[85] (Learn more: www.merriam-webster.com)



Millions missing






Millions Missing
Millions Missing A global campaign, first led by #MEAction in May 2016, which aims to gain awareness, community, education, research, funding and treatment equality for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. The campaign uses the hashtag #MillionsMissing on Twitter.

A global campaign, first led by #MEAction in May 2016, which aims to gain awareness, community, education, research, funding and treatment equality for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. The campaign uses the hashtag #MillionsMissing on Twitter.


Mitochondria
mitochondrion
Mitochondrion
mitochondrial
Mitochondrial




mitochondria
mitochondria Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.

Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.








morphology
morphology The form and structure of plants and animals. A branch of biology.
  • morphology

The form and structure of plants and animals. A branch of biology.[86]


Mouse Models
Mouse model
Mouse models
mouse models
Mouse Model




mouse model
mouse model The use of special strains of mice to study a human disease or condition, and how to prevent and treat it
  • mouse model

The use of special strains of mice to study a human disease or condition, and how to prevent and treat it[87]




Myalgia






myalgia
myalgia Muscle pain.

Muscle pain. [88]


Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
Myalgic encephalomyelitis
Myalgic encephalopathy
Myalgic Encephalopathy
myalgic encephalopathy
M.E.



ME
myalgic encephalomyelitis
myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

(ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome.[89] A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.[90]


Myalgic encephalopathy
Myalgic Encephalopathy





myalgic encephalopathy
myalgic encephalopathy An alternate term that is sometimes used for myalgic encephalomyelitis, by people who believe the evidence for inflammation in ME is insufficient. This terminology reflects the belief that the "-itis" suffix implies inflammation.
  • myalgic encephalopathy

An alternate term that is sometimes used for myalgic encephalomyelitis, by people who believe the evidence for inflammation in ME is insufficient. This terminology reflects the belief that the "-itis" suffix implies inflammation.







myocarditis
myocarditis inflammation of the heart muscle

inflammation of the heart muscle[91]



mycotoxins






mycotoxin
mycotoxin "a poisonous substance produced by a fungus and especially a mold"
  • mycotoxin

"a poisonous substance produced by a fungus and especially a mold"[92]


N


Nanoneedle
nanoneedles
Nanoneedles





nanoneedle
nanoneedle A device with microscopic dimensions which measures electrical impedance across a blood cell. According to Ron Davis, the nanoneedle measured increased electrical impedance in the blood cells of 10 ME/CFS patients when stressed with salt, but not in healthy controls. Accordingly, this device has been proposed as a potential diagnostic test to distinguish ME/CFS patients from healthy controls. (Learn more: www.omf.ngo)
  • nanoneedle

A device with microscopic dimensions which measures electrical impedance across a blood cell. According to Ron Davis, the nanoneedle measured increased electrical impedance in the blood cells of 10 ME/CFS patients when stressed with salt, but not in healthy controls. Accordingly, this device has been proposed as a potential diagnostic test to distinguish ME/CFS patients from healthy controls. (Learn more: www.omf.ngo)


nanotech
nano





nanotechnology
nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the science used to make things that are extremely small and can only be seen using a microscope.
  • nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the science used to make things that are extremely small and can only be seen using a microscope.[93]


NASA ten-minute lean test






NASA 10-minute lean test
NASA 10-minute lean test A variation of a test used by NASA researchers to test for orthostatic intolerance. A simple test which is recommended by the Bateman Horne Center for ME and Fibromyalgia patients. (Learn more: batemanhornecenter.org)

A variation of a test used by NASA researchers to test for orthostatic intolerance. A simple test which is recommended by the Bateman Horne Center for ME and Fibromyalgia patients. (Learn more: batemanhornecenter.org)


National academy of medicine
Institute of Medicine
Institute of medicine
IOM




NAM
National Academy of Medicine
National Academy of Medicine (NAM) - An American non-profit, non-governmental organization which provides expert advice to governmental agencies on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine and health. Formerly known as the Institute of Medicine (IOM).

(NAM) - An American non-profit, non-governmental organization which provides expert advice to governmental agencies on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine and health. Formerly known as the Institute of Medicine (IOM).


National institutes of health
National Institute of Health
National Institutes Health




NIH
National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health (NIH) - A set of biomedical research institutes operated by the U.S. government, under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

(NIH) - A set of biomedical research institutes operated by the U.S. government, under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.


naturopathy
naturopathic
Naturopath
Naturopathy
Naturopathic




naturopath
naturopath a practitioner who uses a system of treatment of disease that avoids drugs and surgery and emphasizes the use of natural agents (such as air, water, and herbs) and physical means (such as tissue manipulation and electrotherapy)
  • naturopath

a practitioner who uses a system of treatment of disease that avoids drugs and surgery and emphasizes the use of natural agents (such as air, water, and herbs) and physical means (such as tissue manipulation and electrotherapy) [94]


neuro-endocrine






neuroendocrine
neuroendocrine relating to hormones that influence the nervous system
  • neuroendocrine

relating to hormones that influence the nervous system [95]


NICE Guidelines
NICE guideline
NICE Guideline





NICE guidelines
NICE guidelines Clinical guidelines used in the UK.

Clinical guidelines used in the UK.[96]



Nocturia
nycturia
Nycturia





nocturia
nocturia urination at night especially when excessive
  • nocturia

urination at night especially when excessive[97]


O

objective outcomes
objective assessment
Objective outcome
Objective outcomes




objective outcome
objective outcome An outcome of a clinical trial that is independent of the judgement of opinion of the assessor/clinician, e.g. distance walked in 6 minutes. Patient-reported outcomes like questionnaires are not objectives.
  • objective outcome

An outcome of a clinical trial that is independent of the judgement of opinion of the assessor/clinician, e.g. distance walked in 6 minutes. Patient-reported outcomes like questionnaires are not objectives.[98]


Orthostatic intolerance
Orthostatic Intolerance





OI
orthostatic intolerance
orthostatic intolerance (OI) - The development of symptoms when standing upright, where symptoms are relieved upon reclining. Patients with orthostatic intolerance have trouble remaining upright for more than a few seconds or a few minutes, depending upon severity. In severe orthostatic intolerance, patients may not be able to sit upright in bed. Orthostatic intolerance is often a sign of dysautonomia. There are different types of orthostatic intolerance, including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).

(OI) - The development of symptoms when standing upright, where symptoms are relieved upon reclining. Patients with orthostatic intolerance have trouble remaining upright for more than a few seconds or a few minutes, depending upon severity. In severe orthostatic intolerance, patients may not be able to sit upright in bed. Orthostatic intolerance is often a sign of dysautonomia. There are different types of orthostatic intolerance, including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).


Oxford Criteria
Oxford diagnostic criteria
Oxford Diagnostic Criteria





Oxford criteria
Oxford criteria A set of diagnostic criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. These criteria focus on "fatigue" as the defining symptom.

A set of diagnostic criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. These criteria focus on "fatigue" as the defining symptom.


Oxford U.
Oxford Uni
University of Oxford





Oxford University
Oxford University a prestigious university located in Oxford, England renowned for its teaching and research in health and medicine
  • Oxford University

a prestigious university located in Oxford, England renowned for its teaching and research in health and medicine[99]


Oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidative Phosphorylation
OX-PHOS




OXPHOS
oxidative phosphorylation
oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) - The oxidative phosphorylation pathway produces more than 95% of a cell's energy in the form of ATP. This is done by the mitochondria, in a process called chemiosmosis.

(OXPHOS) - The oxidative phosphorylation pathway produces more than 95% of a cell's energy in the form of ATP. This is done by the mitochondria, in a process called chemiosmosis.[100][101][102]


P

PACE
PACE Trial





PACE trial
PACE trial A controversial study which claimed that CBT and GET were effective in treating "CFS/ME", despite the fact that its own data did not support this conclusion. Its results and methodology were widely disputed by patients, scientists, and the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

A controversial study which claimed that CBT and GET were effective in treating "CFS/ME", despite the fact that its own data did not support this conclusion. Its results and methodology were widely disputed by patients, scientists, and the peer-reviewed scientific literature.


Pacing






pacing
pacing The practice of staying within one's "energy envelope" or personal limit by combining periods of activity with periods of rest or avoiding exerting beyond a certain level. ME/CFS patients use pacing to avoid or reduce post-exertional malaise (PEM). Some patients use a heart rate monitor to help with pacing.

The practice of staying within one's "energy envelope" or personal limit by combining periods of activity with periods of rest or avoiding exerting beyond a certain level. ME/CFS patients use pacing to avoid or reduce post-exertional malaise (PEM). Some patients use a heart rate monitor to help with pacing.





Pharyngitis






pharyngitis
pharyngitis An irritation or swelling of the top part of the throat, at the back of the mouth, usually caused by an infection such as Streptococcus. The hallmark symptom is a sore throat without cough.
  • pharyngitis

An irritation or swelling of the top part of the throat, at the back of the mouth, usually caused by an infection such as Streptococcus. The hallmark symptom is a sore throat without cough.[103][104]


phase 1
Phase 1
phase I





phase one
phase one A drug trial involving only a small group of humans, often healthy volunteers, to assess drug safety and side effects. Typically 20-80 participants, often using a comparison group.
  • phase one

A drug trial involving only a small group of humans, often healthy volunteers, to assess drug safety and side effects. Typically 20-80 participants, often using a comparison group.[105][106][107]


phase 2
Phase 2
phase II





phase two
phase two A trial involve patients to assess side effects and effectiveness for a particular clinical condition. Typically 100-300 patients.
  • phase two

A trial involve patients to assess side effects and effectiveness for a particular clinical condition. Typically 100-300 patients.[105][106][107]


Phase 3
Phase III
Phase three
phase 3
phase III




phase three
phase three Last phase of clinical trials before a drug can be approved for public use. Whereas Phase one assesses basic safety, and Phase two assesses basic efficacy, Phase three uses many trial participants to fully assess both safety and efficacy, and overall benefit/risk.
  • phase three

Last phase of clinical trials before a drug can be approved for public use. Whereas Phase one assesses basic safety, and Phase two assesses basic efficacy, Phase three uses many trial participants to fully assess both safety and efficacy, and overall benefit/risk.[105]


phase 4
Phase 4
phase IIII
phase VI




phase four
phase four Carried out after a drug is FDA-approved, including postmarket requirements and studies required by the study sponsor. Phase IV trials collect additional information about a drug's safety, efficacy, or optimal use.
  • phase four

Carried out after a drug is FDA-approved, including postmarket requirements and studies required by the study sponsor. Phase IV trials collect additional information about a drug's safety, efficacy, or optimal use.[105]


Physiological
physiologically
Physiologically
physiology




physiological
physiological Concerning living organisms, such as cells or the human body.  Physio logical (as in physio) is not to be confused with psych ological (emotional stress).
  • physiological

Concerning living organisms, such as cells or the human body.[108]Physio logical (as in physio) is not to be confused with psych ological (emotional stress).


Physiological stress
physiological effects
Physiological response
physiological stressor
physiological stresses
physiological stressors



physiological stress
physiological stress The stress placed on living organisms, such as cells or people, e.g. the result of an injury to the body, surgery, walking outside in cold and wet conditions without a coat, or malnutrition.  Physio logical (as in physio) is not to be confused with psych ological (emotional stress).

The stress placed on living organisms, such as cells or people, e.g. the result of an injury to the body, surgery, walking outside in cold and wet conditions without a coat, or malnutrition.[109]Physio logical (as in physio) is not to be confused with psych ological (emotional stress).


Plasma
blood plasma
Blood plasma
Blood Plasma




plasma
plasma The liquid part of blood, lymph, or milk after removing any suspended material. Most of the time, "plasma" simply refers to blood, after all the blood cells have been removed. If you also remove the clotting factors, then the plasma is referred to as "serum".

The liquid part of blood, lymph, or milk after removing any suspended material.[110] Most of the time, "plasma" simply refers to blood, after all the blood cells have been removed. If you also remove the clotting factors, then the plasma is referred to as "serum".



thrombocyte
Thrombocyte
thrombocytes
Thrombocytes
Platelet
platelets
Platelets
platelets


platelet
platelet (also known as a thrombocyte) A colorless disk-like blood cell that assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged linings of blood vessels. Simply put, platelets clump together to form blood clots. (A blood clot is also called a thrombus.) People with low levels of platelets may have trouble with blood clotting, and may bleed easily from minor wounds.

(also known as a thrombocyte) A colorless disk-like blood cell that assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged linings of blood vessels.[111] Simply put, platelets clump together to form blood clots. (A blood clot is also called a thrombus.) People with low levels of platelets may have trouble with blood clotting, and may bleed easily from minor wounds.


Placelet activating factor
placelet-activating factor
Platelet Activating Factor




PAF
placelet-activating factor
placelet-activating factor (PAF) - "A cytokine involved in a number of processes, especially platelet aggregation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis, which is released from a variety of cells including basophils and neutrophils."
  • placelet-activating factor

(PAF) - "A cytokine involved in a number of processes, especially platelet aggregation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis, which is released from a variety of cells including basophils and neutrophils."[112][113]


Post-exertional malaise
Post-exertional Malaise
Post exertional malaise
post exertional malaise
Post Exertional Malaise
Postexertional malaise
postexertional malaise
Postexertional Malaise


PEM
post-exertional malaise
post-exertional malaise (PEM) - A notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small physical or cognitive exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others.

(PEM) - A notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small physical or cognitive exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others.


Post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion
Post-exertional Neuroimmune Exhaustion
Postexertional neuroimmune exhaustion
postexertional neuroimmune exhaustion
Postexertional Neuroimmune Exhaustion
Post exertional neuroimmune exhaustion
post exertional neuroimmune exhaustion
Post Exertional Neuroimmune Exhaustion


PENE
post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion
post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE) - An alternative term for post-exertional malaise (PEM), used by people who find that the word 'malaise' fails to capture the serious nature of the condition. Used in the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report.

(PENE) - An alternative term for post-exertional malaise (PEM), used by people who find that the word 'malaise' fails to capture the serious nature of the condition. Used in the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report. [114]


Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome





POTS
postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) - A form of orthostatic intolerance where the cardinal symptom is excessive tachycardia due to changing position (e.g. from lying down to sitting up).

(POTS) - A form of orthostatic intolerance where the cardinal symptom is excessive tachycardia due to changing position (e.g. from lying down to sitting up).



Presyncope






presyncope
presyncope The sensation that one is about to faint and lose consciousness. It usually is described as a severe lightheaded feeling, often associated with unsteadiness or falling. The sensation arises because the cerebral cortex is temporarily not receiving adequate oxygen, usually because of diminished blood flow.
  • presyncope

The sensation that one is about to faint and lose consciousness. It usually is described as a severe lightheaded feeling, often associated with unsteadiness or falling. The sensation arises because the cerebral cortex is temporarily not receiving adequate oxygen, usually because of diminished blood flow.[115]







prion
prion A protein with an unknown function that lives on the surface of brain cells. Abnormal proteins linked to disease are all known as prions.
  • prion

A protein with an unknown function that lives on the surface of brain cells. Abnormal proteins linked to disease are all known as prions.[116]


projecting
Projection
Projecting
will project
may project
project onto
projected



projection
projection 1. In psychology, a defense mechanism involves attribution unpleasant feelings to another person. May be abusive, e.g., a person accusing someone else of something that they themselves are doing or feeling. Often linked to gaslighting.
2. Estimate or forecast based on trends.
3. Something that extends out from something else.
4. How something is presented. (Learn more: www.forbes.com)
  • projection

1. In psychology, a defense mechanism involves attribution unpleasant feelings to another person. May be abusive, e.g., a person accusing someone else of something that they themselves are doing or feeling. Often linked to gaslighting.[117]
2. Estimate or forecast based on trends.
3. Something that extends out from something else.
4. How something is presented.[118][119] (Learn more: www.forbes.com)


Protozoa
protozoan
protozoon
protozoans
protozoons
Protozoan
Protozoans



protozoa
protozoa Protozoa are microscopic organisms. They usually exists as a single, independent cell. Examples include the parasites giardia lamblia, toxoplasma gondii and babesia.
  • protozoa

Protozoa are microscopic organisms. They usually exists as a single, independent cell. Examples include the parasites giardia lamblia, toxoplasma gondii and babesia.[120][121]



PWME
PwME's
PwMEs
pwme




PwME
PwME Acronym for a "Person with ME" (myalgic encephalomyelitis).
  • PwME

Acronym for a "Person with ME" (myalgic encephalomyelitis).


Q

R

Ramsay Definition
Ramsay criteria
Ramsay Criteria
Ramsay diagnostic criteria
Ramsay Diagnostic Criteria




Ramsay definition
Ramsay definition A clinical definition of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) developed by Melvin Ramsay after 30 years of treating and researching ME patients. Since this definition was in place before the U.S. Centers for Disease Control invented the term "chronic fatigue syndrome", the Ramsay definition is sometimes considered the last clinical definition that may be unbiased by the ensuing diagnostic confusion.

A clinical definition of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) developed by Melvin Ramsay after 30 years of treating and researching ME patients. Since this definition was in place before the U.S. Centers for Disease Control invented the term "chronic fatigue syndrome", the Ramsay definition is sometimes considered the last clinical definition that may be unbiased by the ensuing diagnostic confusion.







rCBF
regional cerebral blood flow
regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - The amount of blood flow to a specific area of the brain in a particular period of time.
  • regional cerebral blood flow

(rCBF) - The amount of blood flow to a specific area of the brain in a particular period of time.[122]


nephric






renal
renal involving, related to or in the area of the kidneys
  • renal

involving, related to or in the area of the kidneys [123]


Randomized controlled trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Randomized controlled trials
randomized controlled trials
Randomized Controlled Trials
Randomised controlled trial
randomised controlled trial
Randomised Controlled Trial


RCT
randomized controlled trial
randomized controlled trial (RCT) - A trial in which participants are randomly assigned to two groups, with one group receiving the treatment being studied and a control or comparison group receiving a sham treatment, placebo, or comparison treatment.

(RCT) - A trial in which participants are randomly assigned to two groups, with one group receiving the treatment being studied and a control or comparison group receiving a sham treatment, placebo, or comparison treatment. [124]


S

Seahorse Analyzer
Seahorse analyzer





seahorse analyzer
seahorse analyzer An instrument which measures oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate in live cells, in real time, producing information regarding important cellular functions such as mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis.
  • seahorse analyzer

An instrument which measures oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate in live cells, in real time, producing information regarding important cellular functions such as mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis.



Serum
blood serum
Blood serum
Blood Serum
sera




serum
serum The clear yellowish fluid that remains from blood plasma after clotting factors have been removed by clot formation. (Blood plasma is simply blood that has had its blood cells removed.)
  • serum

The clear yellowish fluid that remains from blood plasma after clotting factors have been removed by clot formation. (Blood plasma is simply blood that has had its blood cells removed.) [125]



ME/CFS Severely Ill, Big Data Study
ME/CFS Severely Ill Big Data Study
ME/CFS severely ill, big data study
ME/CFS severely ill big data study
Severely Ill Big Data Study
Severely Ill, Big Data Study
Severely ill big data study


SIPS
Severely Ill Patient Study
Severely Ill Patient Study (SIPS) - A study funded by the Open Medicine Foundation and led by Ron Davis and Wenzhong Xiao. It includes over 1000 tests per patient, including the patients' genome, gene expression, metabolomics, microbiome, and others. Formerly known as the ME/CFS Severely Ill Big Data Study. (Learn more: www.omf.ngo)

(SIPS) - A study funded by the Open Medicine Foundation and led by Ron Davis and Wenzhong Xiao. It includes over 1000 tests per patient, including the patients' genome, gene expression, metabolomics, microbiome, and others. Formerly known as the ME/CFS Severely Ill Big Data Study. (Learn more: www.omf.ngo)



Short Form 36 Health Survey
Short-form 36 Health Survey
Short Form 36 Item Health Survey
Short-form 36-Item Health Survey
SF36
short form 36
SF 36


SF-36
Short Form 36-Item Health Survey
Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) - A 36-item patient-reported questionnaire, used to determine patient health status and quality of life.

(SF-36) - A 36-item patient-reported questionnaire, used to determine patient health status and quality of life.



Single nucleotide polymorphism
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Single nucleotide polymorphisms
single nucleotide polymorphisms
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
Single nucleotide variant
single nucleotide variant
Single Nucleotide Variant
SNV
single nucleotide variants
SNP
single nucleotide polymorphism
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) - A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, pronounced "snip") is a potential genetic mutation that occurs in a single spot in the human genome; a difference in a single DNA building block. SNPs are often represented by an "rs" number, such as "rs53576".

(SNP) - A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, pronounced "snip") is a potential genetic mutation that occurs in a single spot in the human genome; a difference in a single DNA building block.[126][127] SNPs are often represented by an "rs" number, such as "rs53576".[128]



social security administration





SSA
Social Security Administration
Social Security Administration (SSA) - SSA is the United States government department for disability benefits, unemployment, and social security/welfare that handles SSD and SSI disability payments.

(SSA) - SSA is the United States government department for disability benefits, unemployment, and social security/welfare that handles SSD and SSI disability payments.


Social Security Disability
SSDI





SSD
social security disability
social security disability (SSD) - United States government disability benefits. Used for those who have previously paid tax and is not means tested. (Learn more: me-pedia.org)
  • social security disability

(SSD) - United States government disability benefits. Used for those who have previously paid tax and is not means tested. (Learn more: me-pedia.org)


Somatic
somatic symptoms
somatic symptom
Somatic symptom
Somatic symptoms




somatic
somatic An adjective relating to the physical body or physical symptoms. It is often contrasted with the adjective "psychological", which refers to the human mind or mental symptoms. In biology, "somatic cells" refer to all the cells of the body, except those which form an egg or sperm.
  • somatic

An adjective relating to the physical body or physical symptoms. It is often contrasted with the adjective "psychological", which refers to the human mind or mental symptoms. In biology, "somatic cells" refer to all the cells of the body, except those which form an egg or sperm.


Somatic symptom
somatic symptoms
Somatic symptom





somatic symptoms
somatic symptoms Physical or bodily symptoms. May be used to mean bodily symptoms that are not the result of a known physical or biological illness.
  • somatic symptoms

Physical or bodily symptoms. May be used to mean bodily symptoms that are not the result of a known physical or biological illness.[129][130]


conversion disorder
Conversion Disorder
somatization
Somatization
somatoform
Somatoform
Somatic Symptom Disorder
psychosomatic
Psychosomatic
Bodily Distress Disorder
somatic symptom disorder
somatic symptom disorder A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience. Although "Somatic Symptom Disorder" is the term used by DSM-5, the term "Bodily Distress Disorder" has been proposed for ICD-11. (Learn more: www.psychologytoday.com)
  • somatic symptom disorder

A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience. Although "Somatic Symptom Disorder" is the term used by DSM-5, the term "Bodily Distress Disorder" has been proposed for ICD-11.[131] (Learn more: www.psychologytoday.com) [132]




Somnolence
somnolent





somnolence
somnolence Drowsiness or a state of "near-sleep", a strong desire for sleep, or oversleeping.

Drowsiness or a state of "near-sleep", a strong desire for sleep, or oversleeping.[133]


Spoon Theory
Spoon theory
spoonie
Spoonie
spoonies
Spoonies



spoon theory
spoon theory An analogy which equates the amount of ability that someone with chronic illness has to complete daily tasks to a limited number of spoons. People with chronic illnesses who must ration their energy throughout the day are sometimes referred to as "spoonies". (Learn more: butyoudontlooksick.com)

An analogy which equates the amount of ability that someone with chronic illness has to complete daily tasks to a limited number of spoons. People with chronic illnesses who must ration their energy throughout the day are sometimes referred to as "spoonies".[134] (Learn more: butyoudontlooksick.com)



Stress
stressed





stress
stress Stress can by either physical or psychological, or both. Stress is either 1) a state of emotional or psychological strain or 2) the physical stress (pressure or tension) that a physical object such the human body is placed under, e.g., a stress test is a medical test that monitors the cardiovascular system during strenuous exercise.

Stress can by either physical or psychological, or both.[109] Stress is either 1) a state of emotional or psychological strain or 2) the physical stress (pressure or tension) that a physical object such the human body is placed under, e.g., a stress test is a medical test that monitors the cardiovascular system during strenuous exercise.[108][135]


Stress fracture
Stress Fracture
Stress fractures
stress fractures
Stress Fractures




stress fracture
stress fracture A tiny crack in a bone caused by repetitive forces such as running or by normal use of a bone that's weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis.
  • stress fracture

A tiny crack in a bone caused by repetitive forces such as running or by normal use of a bone that's weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis.[136]



subjective outcomes
Subjective outcomes
Patient-reported outcome
Patient-reported outcomes
PROMs
PROM
patient-reported outcome measure
patient-reported outcome
patient-reported outcome measures
subjective assessment
subjective outcome
subjective outcome An outcome of a clinical trial that depends on the judgement or opinion of the assessor or patient, e.g. asking if fatigue has increased or decreased "a little" or "a lot", patient questionnaires like the Chalder Fatigue Scale, and other patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).
  • subjective outcome

An outcome of a clinical trial that depends on the judgement or opinion of the assessor or patient, e.g. asking if fatigue has increased or decreased "a little" or "a lot", patient questionnaires like the Chalder Fatigue Scale, and other patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).[98]


subluxations
Subluxation
Subluxations





subluxation
subluxation partial dislocation (as of one of the bones in a joint), common in Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes
  • subluxation

partial dislocation (as of one of the bones in a joint), common in Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes [137]


SSI/SSD





SSI
supplementary security income
supplementary security income (SSI) - United States government disability benefit for those who have not enough work history to claim SSD, including children. Provides payments to adults and children with a disability. Means tested. (Learn more: me-pedia.org)
  • supplementary security income

(SSI) - United States government disability benefit for those who have not enough work history to claim SSD, including children. Provides payments to adults and children with a disability. Means tested. (Learn more: me-pedia.org)


Syncope






syncope
syncope A medical term for fainting. A loss of consciousness resulting from insufficient blood flow to the brain.

A medical term for fainting. A loss of consciousness resulting from insufficient blood flow to the brain.[138]


Systemic exertion intolerance disease
Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease





SEID
systemic exertion intolerance disease
systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) - A term for ME/CFS that aims to avoid the stigma associated with the term "chronic fatigue syndrome", while emphasizing the defining characteristic of post-exertional malaise (PEM). SEID was defined as part of the diagnostic criteria put together by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report of 10 February 2015.

(SEID) - A term for ME/CFS that aims to avoid the stigma associated with the term "chronic fatigue syndrome", while emphasizing the defining characteristic of post-exertional malaise (PEM). SEID was defined as part of the diagnostic criteria put together by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report of 10 February 2015.[139]


T

T Cell
T cells
T Cells
T lymphocyte
T Lymphocyte
T lymphocytes
T Lymphocytes
T-cell
T-cells


T cell
T cell A type of white blood cell which is mostly produced or matured in the thymus gland (hence T-cell) and is involved in the adaptive immune response on a cellular level. Also known as a T lymphocyte. (Learn more: www.youtube.com)

A type of white blood cell which is mostly produced or matured in the thymus gland (hence T-cell) and is involved in the adaptive immune response on a cellular level. Also known as a T lymphocyte. (Learn more: www.youtube.com)


T2 hyperintensities
subcortical hyperintensity
subcortical hyperintensities
Unidentified Bright Object
leukoaraiosis
white matter hyperintensity
White Matter Hyperintensity
white matter hyperintensities
White Matter Hyperintensities
WMH
T2 hyperintensity
T2 hyperintensity An unusual bright spot on a T2-weighted MRI of the brain. Also known as an Unidentified Bright Object (UBO). T2 hyperintensities are often found in the periventricular region, where they may be referred to as "white matter hyperintensities" or "leukoaraiosis". They may also be found in the basal ganglia or brainstem, where they are sometimes referred to as "gray matter hyperintensities", or "subcortical hyperintensities". T2 hyperintensities can represent different things: lesions, dilated Virchow-Robin spaces, or demyelination. They are commonly found in elderly individuals and in neurological disorders. (Learn more: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
  • T2 hyperintensity

An unusual bright spot on a T2-weighted MRI of the brain. Also known as an Unidentified Bright Object (UBO). T2 hyperintensities are often found in the periventricular region, where they may be referred to as "white matter hyperintensities" or "leukoaraiosis". They may also be found in the basal ganglia or brainstem, where they are sometimes referred to as "gray matter hyperintensities", or "subcortical hyperintensities". T2 hyperintensities can represent different things: lesions, dilated Virchow-Robin spaces, or demyelination. They are commonly found in elderly individuals and in neurological disorders. (Learn more: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)


Tachycardia






tachycardia
tachycardia An unusually rapid heart beat. Can be caused by exercise or illness. A symptom of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). (Learn more: www.heart.org)
  • tachycardia

An unusually rapid heart beat. Can be caused by exercise or illness. A symptom of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).[140] (Learn more: www.heart.org)


Tilt table test
Tilt Table Test
tilt-table test
Tilt-table test
Tilt-table Test




tilt table test
tilt table test A diagnostic test to determine orthostatic intolerance or other forms of dysautonomia. The patient is strapped to a table and the table is tilted while the patient is monitored.

A diagnostic test to determine orthostatic intolerance or other forms of dysautonomia. The patient is strapped to a table and the table is tilted while the patient is monitored.


Two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test
Two-day Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test
2-day cardiopulmonary exercise test
2-day Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test
two day cardiopulmonary exercise test
Two day cardiopulmonary exercise test
Two Day Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test
cardiopulmonary exercise test
Cardiopulmonary exercise test
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test
CPET
two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test
two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) - A diagnostic test which involves testing an ME/CFS patient exercising on an exercise machine, while monitoring their respiration, especially oxygen consumption. This test is repeated the following day in order to confirm the patient's inability to replicate the first-day performance. This test is thought to be the most objective way to detect post-exertional malaise.

(CPET) - A diagnostic test which involves testing an ME/CFS patient exercising on an exercise machine, while monitoring their respiration, especially oxygen consumption. This test is repeated the following day in order to confirm the patient's inability to replicate the first-day performance. This test is thought to be the most objective way to detect post-exertional malaise.


U



CFS/ME Research Collaborative
U.K. CFS/ME Research Collaborative





CMRC
UK CFS/ME Research Collaborative
UK CFS/ME Research Collaborative (CMRC) - A UK group of researchers and ME/CFS patient groups led by Professor Stephen Holgate. Its launch in 2013 was covered by the Science Media Centre. Since 2014, the collaborative sponsors the CFS/ME Research Collaborative Conference.

(CMRC) - A UK group of researchers and ME/CFS patient groups led by Professor Stephen Holgate.[141] Its launch in 2013 was covered by the Science Media Centre.[142] Since 2014, the collaborative sponsors the CFS/ME Research Collaborative Conference.


V






vertigo
vertigo An illusion of movement, typically whirling, spinning or tilting.

An illusion of movement, typically whirling, spinning or tilting.[143]


Vesicle
vesicles
Vesicles
vesicular
Vesicular




vesicle
vesicle In cell biology, a vesicle is any "bubble" of liquid surrounded by a layer of molecules forming an enclosing membrane.
  • vesicle

In cell biology, a vesicle is any "bubble" of liquid surrounded by a layer of molecules forming an enclosing membrane.


Virchow-Robin spaces
Virchow Robin space
Virchow Robin spaces
Virchow-Robin Space
Virchow Robin Space
perivascular space
perivascular spaces
Perivascular space
Perivascular spaces
Virchow-robin space
Virchow-Robin space
Virchow-Robin space A space inside the blood-brain barrier that surrounds blood vessels. They are also known as perivascular spaces. Immune cells from the blood often enter the Virchow-Robin space, but are unable to enter the brain. In cases of neuroinflammation, immune cells may accumulate in the Virchow-Robin space, unable to enter the brain. This accumulation of immune cells (called perivascular cuffing) may lead to an enlarged Virchow-Robin space. Enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces may be visible in an MRI image of the brain.
  • Virchow-Robin space

A space inside the blood-brain barrier that surrounds blood vessels. They are also known as perivascular spaces. Immune cells from the blood often enter the Virchow-Robin space, but are unable to enter the brain. In cases of neuroinflammation, immune cells may accumulate in the Virchow-Robin space, unable to enter the brain. This accumulation of immune cells (called perivascular cuffing) may lead to an enlarged Virchow-Robin space. Enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces may be visible in an MRI image of the brain.[144]


Virome
Human Virome
human virome




virome
virome The human virome is the collection of all viruses that are found in or on humans.
  • virome

The human virome is the collection of all viruses that are found in or on humans. [145]


VO2Max
VO2 Max
VO2-max
VO2 Max
vO2 Max
vO2max
maximal oxygen consumption
vo2 max
VO2 max
VO₂ max
VO2max
VO2 max
VO2 max (VO2max) - the maximum amount of oxygen the body can utilize during a specified period of usually intense exercise (Volume of O2 Maximal)
  • VO2 max

(VO2max) - the maximum amount of oxygen the body can utilize during a specified period of usually intense exercise (Volume of O2 Maximal) [146]

W



World health organization





WHO
World Health Organization
World Health Organization (WHO) - "A specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations." The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is maintained by WHO.

(WHO) - "A specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations." The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is maintained by WHO.[147]


X

Y

Z

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