From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history
Jump to: navigation, search

Histamine is a compound involved in local immune responses, regulates the gut, and acts as a neurotransmitter. Histamine is released by mast cells and excess histamine is involved in many of the symptoms of mast cell activation disorder.

Type of histamine receptors[edit | edit source]

Role of histamine in the body[edit | edit source]

Histamine stimulates inflammation by increasing blood flow to a site of infection or the region surrounding allergens, so your immune can engulf the foreign particle. It does this by causing the release of nitric oxide, which in turn causes vasodilation.[citation needed]

Modulating histamine levels[edit | edit source]

Histamine is broken down by an enzyme called diamine oxidase (DAO), which is found mainly in the gastrointestinal tract and in pregnant women, the placenta. Nutritional deficiencies in Vitamin C, magnesium, Vitamin B6 and copper – all DAO cofactors – can decrease DAO activity.

Vitamin C reduces blood histamine levels,[1][2][3] potentially through several mechanisms: by inhibiting mast cell production; by increasing diamine oxidase (an enzyme that breaks down histamine); by inhibiting mast cell degranulation (and the release of histamine in the first place),[4] and by inhibiting histidine decarboxylase (the enzyme that forms histamine).[5]

Manganese and zinc can also prevent the release of histamine from mast cells.

Histamine intolerance[edit | edit source]

Histamine sensitivity can be a sign of mast cell activation disorder. Histamine Intolerance (HI) is a separate diagnosis.[6]

Antihistamines[edit | edit source]

Antihistamines, also known as histamine antagonists help block the effects of histamine in the body. Classic antihistamines block H1 histamine receptors only.[7]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Clemetson, C. A. (April 1980), "Histamine and ascorbic acid in human blood", The Journal of Nutrition, 110 (4): 662–668, ISSN 0022-3166, PMID 7365537
  2. Johnston, C. S.; Martin, L. J.; Cai, X. (April 1992), "Antihistamine effect of supplemental ascorbic acid and neutrophil chemotaxis", Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 11 (2): 172–176, ISSN 0731-5724, PMID 1578094
  3. Johnston, CS (December 1996). "Vitamin C depletion is associated with alterations in blood histamine and plasma free carnitine in adults". J Am Coll Nutr.
  4. Mio, M (1999). "Ultraviolet B (UVB) light-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and its augmentation by certain phenothiazine compounds". Immunopharmacology.
  5. Molderings, Gerhard (2016). "Pharmacological treatment options for mast cell activation disease". Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol.
  6. https://www.histamineintolerance.org.uk/
  7. "Histamine Antagonists". DrugBank Online. Retrieved February 18, 2021.

cofactor A substance that acts with another substance to bring about certain effects. In biochemistry, a cofactor is a molecule that is necessary for a given biochemical reaction, but is not an enzyme or substrate of the reaction.

antagonist A chemical that reduces or helps block the activity of another chemical in the body. For example, most antihistamines are H1 antagonists because they block the H1 histamine receptor, which helps relieve allergy symptoms. The opposite of an agonist.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.