Diamine oxidase

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history

Diamine oxidase (DAO), also known as histaminase, is an enzyme that breaks down histamine. The highest concentrations of DAO are found in the digestive tract and the placenta.[1]

DAO is also available as a food supplement under the brand names DAOSin, DAO Histaminase, Histame, HistamAid88, and Dao Histamine Digester Supplement, and others.[2]

Theory[edit | edit source]

DAO levels in the body cannot be changed, but DAO supplements taken with a meal can reduce the levels of histamine absorbed from that meal, reducing the severity of any histamine reactions.[3][4]

Two studies have investigated serum levels of DAO as a potential diagnostic test for histamine intolerance (HIT), but this is not a widely accepted diagnostic test.[5]:40-41

Supplementation[edit | edit source]

DAO food supplements are taken for histamine intolerance in patients with low DAO, for example the supplement DAOsin.[3][6]

DAO food supplements form are sometimes taken by individuals with mast cell activation disorder.[citation needed]

In rats, Magnesium is an important cofactor in the production of DAO and magnesium deficiency may result in decreased DAO activity and excess histamine levels.[7]

Copper, Vitamin B6[8] and Vitamin C are other important DAO cofactors.

Heparin increases the activity of DAO in the blood.[9]

Cost and availability[edit | edit source]

DAO supplements are available without a prescription. Some DAO supplements contain extra active ingredients such as quercetin, rutin, vitamin C or other vitamins, calcium or other minerals, plus inactive ingredients including stabilizers, or preservatives.[2]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

Low Histamine Foods (downloads)[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Agúndez, JA; Ayuso, P; Cornejo-García, JA; Blanca, M; Torres, MJ; Doña, I; Salas, M; Blanca-López, N; Canto, G; Rondon, C; Campo, P; Laguna, JJ; Fernández, J; Martínez, C; García-Martín, E (2012). "The diamine oxidase gene is associated with hypersensitivity response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e47571. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047571. PMID 23152756.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Daimine Oxidase (DAO): what you need to know". histamine-sensitivity.com. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Schnedl, Wolfgang J.; Schenk, Michael; Lackner, Sonja; Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Forster, Florian (December 2019). "Diamine oxidase supplementation improves symptoms in patients with histamine intolerance". Food Science and Biotechnology. 28 (6): 1779–1784. doi:10.1007/s10068-019-00627-3. ISSN 2092-6456. PMC 6859183. PMID 31807350.
  4. "What is DAO deficiency?". DAO Deficient. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  5. Pokorski, Mieczyslaw (January 15, 2018). Current Concepts in Medical Research and Practice. Springer. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-3-319-74150-5.
  6. Sciotec Diagnostic Technologies GmbH (April 16, 2018). "Pilotstudie Zur Untersuchung Der Wirkung Einer Oralen Supplementation Von Diaminooxidase (DAOsin®) Bei Histamin-Intoleranz in Bezug Auf Die Steigerung Der Erniedrigten Endogenen Diaminooxidase-Aktivität". clinicaltrials.gov (in Deutsch).
  7. Nishio, A.; Ishiguro, S.; Miyao, N. (1987). "Specific change of histamine metabolism in acute magnesium-deficient young rats". Drug-Nutrient Interactions. 5 (2): 89–96. ISSN 0272-3530. PMID 3111814.
  8. Martner-Hewes, P.M.; Hunt, I.F.; Murphy, N.J.; Swendseid, M.E.; Settlage, R.H. (December 1, 1986). "Vitamin B-6 nutriture and plasma diamine oxidase activity in pregnant Hispanic teenagers". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 44 (6): 907–913. ISSN 0002-9165. PMID 3098085.
  9. Klocker, Josef; Perkmann, Reinhold; Klein-Weigel, Peter; Mörsdorf, Gabriele; Drasche, Astrid; Klingler, Anton; Fraedrich, Gustav; Schwelberger, Hubert G. (January 2004). "Continuous administration of heparin in patients with deep vein thrombosis can increase plasma levels of diamine oxidase". Vascular Pharmacology. 40 (6): 293–300. doi:10.1016/j.vph.2004.02.002. ISSN 1537-1891. PMID 15063833.