From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history

Copper is an essential trace dietary mineral. Copper works with iron to help the body form red blood cells. It also helps keep the blood vessels, nerves, immune system, and bones healthy. Copper also aids in iron absorption.[1]

Function[edit | edit source]

Copper is a cofactor for diamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down histamine, a chemical released by mast cells. Copper deficiency is associated with increased tryptase[2], a marker of mast cell activation. Copper, along with iron, is also necessary for creating collagen.[1][3] Lysyl oxidase or LOX is an extracellular copper-dependent enzyme that acts on lysines and hydroxylysines to crosslink collagen and elastin, which is essential for stabilization of collagen fibrils and for the integrity and elasticity of mature elastin.[4][5]

Copper deficiency[edit | edit source]

  • Overconsumption of zinc can interfere with the absorption of copper. This imbalance can contribute to the development of coronary heart disease.[6]
  • Copper deficiency (along with zinc and manganese) can contribute to oxidative stress. However, excessive levels of copper and manganese may do the same.[7]
  • Copper deficiency may reduce calcium absorption[8]

Clinical use[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ellis, Rachel Reiff (September 7, 2023). "Copper and Your Health". WebMD. Retrieved June 15, 2024.
  2. Öhrvik, Helena; Pejler, Gunnar; Kaler, Stephen G.; Kjellén, Lena; Frisk, Jun Mei Hu (December 15, 2017). "Copper Regulates Maturation and Expression of an MITF:Tryptase Axis in Mast Cells". The Journal of Immunology. 199 (12): 4132–4141. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1700786. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 29127151.
  3. O'Dell, B. L. (August 14, 1981). "Roles for iron and copper in connective tissue biosynthesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 294 (1071): 91–104. doi:10.1098/rstb.1981.0091. ISSN 0962-8436. PMID 6118903.
  4. Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar R.; Ramamurthi, Anand (December 2009). "Lysyl Oxidase Enhances Elastin Synthesis and Matrix Formation by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells". Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. 3 (8): 655–661. doi:10.1002/term.214. ISSN 1932-6254. PMC 2828049. PMID 19813219.
  5. Rodríguez, Cristina; Martínez-González, José (December 2019). "The Role of Lysyl Oxidase Enzymes in Cardiac Function and Remodeling". Cells. 8 (12): 1483. doi:10.3390/cells8121483. ISSN 2073-4409. PMC 6953057. PMID 31766500.
  6. Klevay, L M (July 1972). "Coronary heart disease: the zinc/copper hypothesis". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 28 (7): 764–774. doi:10.1093/ajcn/28.7.764. ISSN 0002-9165.
  7. Verillo, Erica (March 26, 2013). "The Pall Protocol for Treating CFS/ME - Prohealth". Prohealth. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  8. Johnson, Larry E. "Copper - Disorders of Nutrition - MSD Manual Consumer Version". MSD Manual Consumer Version. Retrieved November 17, 2018.