Red blood cell

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Red blood cells (RBCs), or erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell in the human body.

Discoctyes are normally shaped red blood cells and stomatocytes are cup-shaped red blood cells[1] which may appear to have a slit shape in the center, like a coffee bean.

In ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Red blood cell shapes. Cup-shaped stomatocytes, next to normal biconcave discoctyes.[https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12195-008-0019-5 Citation: Khairy, K., Foo, J. & Howard, J. Cel. Mol. Bioeng. (2008) 1: 173.

Red blood cell abnormalities have been found in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and Gulf War Illness

A small study of veterans with Gulf War Illness found increased deformability (the ability of erythrocytes to change shape under a given level of applied stress without rupturing) along with increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW).[2]

A 1989 study found higher numbers of cup-form red blood cells known as stomatocytes in ME patients versus controls.[3]

Studies[edit | edit source]

  • 1989, Red blood cell morphology in chronic fatigue syndrome.[4]
  • 1991, Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome.[5]
  • 1994, Normal red cell magnesium concentrations and magnesium loading tests in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.[6]
  • 2004, Autonomic function and serum erythropoietin levels in chronic fatigue syndrome.[7]
  • 2018, Red blood cell deformability is diminished in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.[8]
  • 2018, Abnormal rheological properties of red blood cells as a potential marker of Gulf War Illness: A preliminary study.[2]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Khairy, Khaled; Foo, JiJinn; Howard, Jonathon (Sep 3, 2008). "Shapes of Red Blood Cells: Comparison of 3D Confocal Images with the Bilayer-Couple Model". Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering. 1 (2): 173. doi:10.1007/s12195-008-0019-5. ISSN 1865-5033. PMC 2963995Freely accessible. PMID 21031149. 
  2. 2.02.1 Falvo, Michael J.; Chen, Yang; Klein, Jacquelyn C.; Ndirangu, Duncan; Condon, Michael R. (2018). "Abnormal rheological properties of red blood cells as a potential marker of Gulf War Illness: A preliminary study". Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation. 68 (4): 361–370. doi:10.3233/CH-170262. ISSN 1875-8622. PMID 29660926. 
  3. Simpson, LO (1989), "Nondiscocytic erythrocytes in myalgic encephalomyelitis", The New Zealand Medical Journal, 102 (864): 126-127, PMID 2927808 
  4. Lloyd, A.; Wakefield, D.; Smith, L.; Isbister, J.; McGrath, M.; Collings, A.; Bajenov, N. (Jul 22, 1989). "Red blood cell morphology in chronic fatigue syndrome". Lancet (London, England). 2 (8656): 217. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 2568543. 
  5. Cox, I. M.; Campbell, M. J.; Dowson, D. (Mar 30, 1991). "Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome". Lancet (London, England). 337 (8744): 757–760. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 1672392. 
  6. Hinds, G.; Bell, N. P.; McMaster, D.; McCluskey, D. R. (Sep 1994). "Normal red cell magnesium concentrations and magnesium loading tests in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 31 ( Pt 5): 459–461. doi:10.1177/000456329403100506. ISSN 0004-5632. PMID 7832571. 
  7. Winkler, Andrea S.; Blair, Dorothy; Marsden, Joanne T.; Peters, Timothy J.; Wessely, Simon; Cleare, Anthony J. (Feb 2004). "Autonomic function and serum erythropoietin levels in chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 56 (2): 179–183. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00543-9. ISSN 0022-3999. PMID 15016575. 
  8. Saha, Amit K.; Schmidt, Brendan R.; Wilhelmy, Julie; Nguyen, Vy; Abugherir, Abed; Do, Justin K.; Nemat-Gorgani, Mohsen; Davis, Ronald W.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K. (Dec 28, 2018). "Red blood cell deformability is diminished in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation. doi:10.3233/CH-180469. ISSN 1875-8622. PMID 30594919. 

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A controversial term, invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, that generally refers to a collection of symptoms as “fatigue”. There have been multiple attempts to come up with a set of diagnostic criteria to define this term, but few of those diagnostic criteria are currently in use. Previous attempts to define this term include the Fukuda criteria and the Oxford criteria. Some view the term as a useful diagnostic category for people with long-term fatigue of unexplained origin. Others view the term as a derogatory term borne out of animus towards patients. Some view the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, while others view myalgic encephalomyelitis as a distinct disease.

serum - the clear yellowish fluid that remains from blood plasma after clotting factors have been removed by clot formation

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A controversial term, invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, that generally refers to a collection of symptoms as “fatigue”. There have been multiple attempts to come up with a set of diagnostic criteria to define this term, but few of those diagnostic criteria are currently in use. Previous attempts to define this term include the Fukuda criteria and the Oxford criteria. Some view the term as a useful diagnostic category for people with long-term fatigue of unexplained origin. Others view the term as a derogatory term borne out of animus towards patients. Some view the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, while others view myalgic encephalomyelitis as a distinct disease.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.