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Glial cells, commonly called neuroglia or simply glia, are one of two major classes of cells in neural tissues, the other being neurons. Glia, which is Greek for glue, have traditionally been viewed as the glue that holds the neuronal system together, representing the historical view that glia exist to provide support to neurons. However, the type of glia known as microglia was subsequently found to actually be a tissue-resident macrophage, an immune cell. There is also increasing evidence that the type of glia known as astrocytes may play a more active role in brain function, by influencing and perhaps directing the activity of neurons (SFN 2000)."
Glial activation[edit | edit source]
Glasson (2017) described the following model showing the effects of sustained glial activation.
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- 2-Minute Neuroscience: Glial Cells by Neuroscientifically Challenged via YouTube
- The Neuroinflammatory Etiopathology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)(Full text)
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Glial cells - New World Encyclopedia
- Glassford, Julian A.G. (2017). "The Neuroinflammatory Etiopathology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)". Frontiers in Physiology. 8. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00088. ISSN 1664-042X. PMC 5314655. PMID 28261110. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
microglia A type of immune cell, called a macrophage, that lives in the brain. For historical reasons, macrophages have different names based on the part of the body that they normally live in. Macrophages that normally live in the blood are called monocytes. Macrophages that normally live in the skin are called Langerhans cells. Macrophages that normally live in the liver are called Kupffer cells. And macrophages that normally live in the central nervous system are called microglia. Microglia were originally classified as glial cells, under the assumption that the cells had a merely structural function, before it was realized that the cells were in fact immune cells. As the "sentinel cells" of the central nervous system, microglia survey their environment for abnormalities such as infection or tissue damage, and then initiate an immune response to fight the infection or repair the tissue damage.
myalgic encephalomyelitis (M.E.) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.