Brain

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history
Jump to: navigation, search
Diagram of brain showing Corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainsteam, amydala, thalamus, basal ganglia
Diagram of Brain[1] License: CC-BY-4.0

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision.The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS).

The brain and spinal cord have their own immune system.[2]Microglia cells are a part of that immune system.[3]

The brain also has its own lymphatic system which links directly to the peripheral immune system.[4]

Injury to the brain or spinal cord, such as those caused by stroke or trauma, result in a considerable weakening of the immune system.[5] 

Brain involvement in ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Encephalo refers to the brain.[6][7]

Chronic fatigue syndrome[edit | edit source]

  • 2017, A study by Natelson, et al, showed that:
  • patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have higher brain ventricular lactate, more abnormal spinal fluids, lower brain glutathione, and reduced cerebral blood flow than controls,
  • psychiatric comorbidity does not influence any of these potential biological markers of CFS,
  • 50% of the patients had more than one of these abnormalities, and
  • a subgroup of CFS patients with brain abnormalities may have an underlying encephalopathy producing their illness.[10]

Microglia[edit | edit source]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

Brain function characteristics of chronic fatigue syndrome: A task fMRI study (2018) [17]


  • 2018, Neuroinflammation in the Brain of Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[18]
  • 2018, Hyperintense sensorimotor T1 spin echo MRI is associated with brainstem abnormality in chronic fatigue syndrome[19](Full Text)
  • 2018, Brain abnormalities in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: Evaluation by diffusional kurtosis imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging[20](Abstract)

Fibromyalgia[edit | edit source]


Talks & interviews[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

  • Neuroquant Triage Brain Atrophy Report (MRI)[21] - Provides physicians a quick reference and in-depth look on regional and global brain structure volumes, which could occur as a result of a brain injury or in neurodegenerative disease, by providing volume measurements of 44 brain structures for both the right and left hemisphere, total structure  – all sorted by lobe and region. With a detailed table of intracranial volume and right, left and total values for normative percentile of ICV. Resulting values are automatically compared to gender and age-appropriate reference distribution.
  • 2-Minute Neuroscience: Lobes and Landmarks of the Brain Surface (Lateral View)[22]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "The Central Nervous System". OpenStax Biology. Sep 29, 2018. Retrieved Sep 29, 2018. 
  2. "Scientists create new map of brain's immune system". ScienceDaily. Feb 19, 2019. Retrieved Mar 31, 2019. 
  3. "Brain immune system is key to recovery from motor neuron degeneration: Results in study point to new approaches for ALS therapy". ScienceDaily. Feb 20, 2018. Retrieved Mar 31, 2019. 
  4. Stetka, Bret (Jul 21, 2015). "Important Link between the Brain and Immune System Found". Scientific American. Retrieved Mar 31, 2019. 
  5. "An interconnection between the nervous and immune system: Neuroendocrine reflex triggers infections". ScienceDaily. Sep 29, 2017. Retrieved Mar 31, 2019. 
  6. Dellwo, Adrienne (Jul 23, 2018). "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome's Other Name". Verywell Health. Retrieved Aug 12, 2018. 
  7. "encephalo-". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved Aug 12, 2018. 
  8. Shan, ZY; Kwiatek, R; Burnet, R; Del Fante, P; Staines, DR; Marshall-Gradisnik, SM; Barnden, LR (Apr 28, 2016), "Progressive brain changes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A longitudinal MRI study", Journal of magnetic resonance imaging: JMRI, doi:10.1002/jmri.25283, PMID 27123773 
  9. Jaime S (May 5, 2016), "Progressive Brain Changes in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Are our Brains Starved of Oxygen?", #MEAction 
  10. Natelson, Benjamin; Mao, Xiangling; Stegner, Aaron J; Lange, Gudrun; Vu, Diana; Blate, Michelle; Kang, Guoxin; Soto, Eli; Kapusuz, Tolga; Shungu, Dikoma C (2017), "Multimodal and simultaneous assessments of brain and spinal fluid abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome and the effects of psychiatric comorbidity", Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 375: 411-416, doi:10.1016/j.jns.2017.02.046 
  11. Dellwo, Adrienne (Feb 21, 2018). "Is Something Called Microglia Causing Your Pain & Brain Fog?". Verywell Health. Retrieved Aug 13, 2018. 
  12. Puri, B. K.; Counsell, S. J.; Zaman, R.; Main, J.; Collins, A. G.; Hajnal, J. V.; Davey, N. J. (2002). "Relative increase in choline in the occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 106 (3): 224–226. ISSN 0001-690X. PMID 12197861. 
  13. Ferrero, Kimberly; Silver, Mitchell; Cocchetto, Alan; Masliah, Eliezer; Langford, Dianne (2017), "CNS findings in chronic fatigue syndrome and a neuropathological case report", Journal of Investigative Medicine, doi:10.1136/jim-2016-000390 
  14. Finkelmeyer, Andreas; He, Jiabao; Maclachlan, Laura; Watson, Stuart; Gallagher, Peter; Newton, Julia L.; Blamire, Andrew M. (2018), "Grey and white matter differences in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – A voxel-based morphometry study", NeuroImage: Clinical, 17: 24-30, doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2017.09.024, PMID 29021956 
  15. Staud, Roland; Robinson, Michael E.; Letzen, Janelle E.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Sevel, Landrew S. (Aug 1, 2018). "Structural brain changes versus self-report: machine-learning classification of chronic fatigue syndrome patients". Experimental Brain Research. 236 (8): 2245–2253. doi:10.1007/s00221-018-5301-8. ISSN 1432-1106. PMID 29846797. 
  16. Zinn, Mark A.; Zinn, Marcie L.; Valencia, Ian; Jason, Leonard A.; Montoya, Jose G. (2018), "Cortical hypoactivation during resting EEG suggests central nervous system pathology in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome", Biological Psychology, 136 (1): 87-99, doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.05.016 
  17. 17.017.1 Shan, Zack Y.; Finegan, Kevin; Bhuta, Sandeep; Ireland, Timothy; Staines, Donald R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M.; Barnden, Leighton R. (Jan 1, 2018). National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases; Medical Imaging Dept., Gold Coast Hosp.. "Brain function characteristics of chronic fatigue syndrome: A task fMRI study". NeuroImage: Clinical. 19: 279–286. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2018.04.025. ISSN 2213-1582 – via Elsevier. 
  18. Nakatomi, Y; Kuratsune, H; Watanabe, Y (2018), "Neuroinflammation in the Brain of Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", Brain Nerve, 70 (1): 19-25, doi:10.11477/mf.1416200945, PMID 29348371 
  19. Barnden, Leighton R.; Shan, Zack Y.; Staines, Donald R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya; Finegan, Kevin; Ireland, Timothy; Bhuta, Sandeep (2018). "Hyperintense sensorimotor T1 spin echo MRI is associated with brainstem abnormality in chronic fatigue syndrome". NeuroImage: Clinical. 20: 102–109. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2018.07.011. 
  20. Kimura, Yukio; Sato, Noriko; Ota, Miho; Shigemoto, Yoko; Morimoto, Emiko; Enokizono, Mikako; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Shin, Isu; Amano, Keiko (Nov 14, 2018). "Brain abnormalities in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: Evaluation by diffusional kurtosis imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. doi:10.1002/jmri.26247. ISSN 1053-1807. 
  21. "Triage Brain Atrophy Report". Cortechs Labs. 
  22. "2-Minute Neuroscience: Lobes and Landmarks of the Brain Surface (Lateral View)". YouTube. Neuroscientifically Challenged. Aug 22, 2014. 

Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome


The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history