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Choline is a major phospholipid and an essential nutrient used as a building block to several other biochemicals in the human body.[1] Although the body manufactures some choline, the majority of what is used needs to be consumed in food, such as eggs, meat, poultry, fish, cruciferous vegetables, peanuts, and dairy products.[2]

Purpose[edit | edit source]

Choline is used to produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.[1]

Sources[edit | edit source]

Although some choline can be made by the human body, dietary choline is also needed. Men deficient in choline have been found to develop liver and muscle damage, and have compromised kidney function.[1]

Choline is found in many different foods, including:

  • beef liver
  • egg
  • bacon
  • cod
  • dairy products
  • vegetarian and vegan sources include wheatgerm, soyabeans and tofu, peanut butter, bread and spinach[1]

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

A small study of CFS patients found increased choline in the basal ganglia,[3] another in the occipital cortex.[4]

Increased choline has been found in the certain brain structures of CFS patients, suggesting a possible increased oxidation of the cell membranes of neurons in these regions.[3][4][5]

Chemical formula[edit | edit source]


Supplements[edit | edit source]

Choline supplements include CDP-choline (citicoline), choline chloride, choline bitartrate, and other choline salts.[2]

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) can be used to treat choline deficiency.[1]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. van der Poll, MCG; Luiking, YC; Dejong, CHC; Soeters, PB (September 2, 2009). "Amino Acids". In Caballero, Benjamin (ed.). Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Oxford, UK: Academic Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-12-375661-9.
  2. 2.02.1 "Choline". Linus Pauling Institute. April 28, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  3. 3.03.1 Chaudhuri, A.; Condon, B. R.; Gow, J. W.; Brennan, D.; Hadley, D. M. (February 10, 2003), "Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of basal ganglia in chronic fatigue syndrome", Neuroreport, 14 (2): 225–228, doi:10.1097/01.wnr.0000054960.21656.64, ISSN 0959-4965, PMID 12598734
  4. 4.04.1 Puri, B. K.; Counsell, S. J.; Zaman, R.; Main, J.; Collins, A. G.; Hajnal, J. V.; Davey, N. J. (September 1, 2002), "Relative increase in choline in the occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome", Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 106 (3): 224–226, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0447.2002.01300.x, ISSN 1600-0447, retrieved November 9, 2016
  5. Puri, B. K (April 2004), "The use of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome", Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, Professor David F. Horrobin 1939-2003: A Tribute, 70 (4): 399–401, doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.12.015, ISSN 0952-3278, retrieved November 9, 2016
  6. PubChem. "Choline". Retrieved May 3, 2019.

cell membrane A very thin membrane, composed of lipids and protein, that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.

ganglion A ganglion is a group of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system. Plural: ganglia / ganglions

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.