Esther Crawley

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Esther Crawley is Professor in Child Health at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom. She is a proponent of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Graded Exercise Therapy (GET) as treatments for paediatric and adult Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

She leads the paediatric centre for children and young people with ME/CFS at the Royal United Hospital in Bath (previously at the Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases in Bath). Her work has been funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and Action for ME.[1]

Crawley served as vice-chair of the UK CFS/ME Research Collaborative (CMRC) until 2018.[2]

She was on the guideline development group (GDG) for the NICE guidelines published in August 2007 and the Medical Research Council CFS/ME expert working group (2009-2010).

She has published studies in the Journal of Psychosomatic Research [3] and collaborates with Peter White of Queen Mary University of London.

Since 2006, Professor Crawley has been awarded £2.3 million in grants by various bodies to study CFS/ME and is the second highest funded researcher in the UK.[4]

Education[edit | edit source]

BA(Hons), BMBCh(Oxon) Bachelor of Medicine, PhD(UCLond)

Notable research[edit | edit source]

Esther Crawley is involved with a number of research projects that have drawn heavy criticism from individual patients, charities, patient groups, members of the medical profession and scientists.

SMILE trial[edit | edit source]

SMILE was a pilot trial on children with ME/CFS and involved comparing the effects of standard medical treatment (SMC) against that of the Lightning Process with SMC.[5] The initial budget was £164,000 funded by the Linbury Trust and the Ashden Trust.[6]

Children aged 12 to 18 were drawn from the Bristol and Bath areas, with those too unwell to attend hospital appointments excluded. The charity Association of Young People with ME (AYME) was a participant in the trial[7] and gave evidence in support during the trial ethics procedure.

A Freedom of Information Act request asking for the cost of the trial and payments to Phil Parker were turned down as they university states the "information is held by the University but is exempt from disclosure under section 22(1) of the Freedom of Information Act as it is information intended for future publication."[8]

MAGENTA trial[edit | edit source]

In the MAGENTA trial, Professor Crawley is studying graded exercise therapy in children.[9] The protocol Managed Activity Graded Exercise iN Teenagers and pre-Adolescents (MAGENTA) feasibility randomised controlled trial: study protocol was published in 2017.[10]

The trial started in September 2015 and studies 100 paediatric patients aged 8-17 in centres in Bath, Newcastle and Cambridge who randomly receive graded exercise therapy or activity management. It aimed to be completed in August 2016. The feasibility study was due to be published in 2017 and is now several years overdue.[11]

FITNET Trial[edit | edit source]

FITNET-NHS is a major study led by Dr Crawley funded by the NIHR which began in May 2016 and is due to be completed by May 2022.[12] The projected cost is £994,430 and participants include UMC Utrecht and Radboud University Medical Centre in the Netherlands. The charity AYME and the Science Media Centre are also involved to "help us inform patients".

The study aim is to test FITNET-NHS (specialist CBT for paediatric CFS/ME delivered on-line) compared with Activity Management in terms of cost-effectiveness and clinical success.

David Tuller who exposed the PACE trial scandal in his Trial by Error series of investigations wrote about FITNET in November 2016. On 21 Nov, 21016 he wrote Trial by Error, Continued: The New FITNET Trial for Kids[13] and on 28 November 2016 he wrote a follow-up post.[14]

There was severe criticism by patients, including in the Bristol University student newspaper [15].

MEGA[edit | edit source]

MEGA, the controversial ME/CFS Epidemiology and Genomics Alliance, is a group of 15 UK researchers including Professor Crawley, who have submitted requests for large amounts of research funding for ME/CFS studies. This has been supported by some ME/CFS patients and charities, but strongly opposed by others, including the Opposing MEGA group.

Pervasive Refusal Syndrome[edit | edit source]

Crawley was one of the authors of a paper describing several children with Pervasive Refusal Syndrome (PRS) who "presented as" chronic fatigue syndrome; patients with PRS were similar to those with CFS/ME in terms of age, gender, presence of anxiety or depressive symptoms, time to assessment and pain. They were more disabled than CFS patients and had higher levels of fatigue[16] It is not clear how PRS is distinguished from severe ME/CFS as the description of PRS matches that of severe/profound ME/CFS. The study suggests that clinicians should think about PRS in patients with refusal symptoms affecting, eating, social interaction, self-care, mobility and treatment. Patients have extremely high levels of fatigue and/or disability. Post-exertional fatigue and disrupted sleep occur but patients are less likely to have characteristic symptoms of CFS/ME such as unrefreshing sleep. Of major concern is that the treatment for PRS is admittance to a psychiatric ward and coercion to do more activity i.e. the exact opposite of the needs of a child with profound ME/CFS. A clinical case that describes a child with pervasive refusal disorder[17] is consistent with a description of profound ME/CFS, and the description of what works to help the child is also consistent with what helps a child with profound ME/CFS, "Treatment must involve tender loving care. The carers must be very patient and sensitive. It takes a long time for the patients to recover, and pressuring them makes their condition worse. It typically takes a few months of treatment before it becomes possible to implement a very gradual rehabilitation programme. Therapeutic enthusiasm in the early stages is almost always counterproductive [11]." Ironically the authors did not appear to collect any physiological data such as the child's temperature (despite her complaints of being cold, or her heart rate, and blood pressure.[18][citation needed]

Controversies and criticism[edit | edit source]

GMC Complaints[edit | edit source]

Dr Crawley has been the subject of a number of complaints to the UK's General Medical Council (GMC)[19]

NICE Guidelines Review Panel[edit | edit source]

Esther Crawley, along with Action for ME's medical advisor and others, were part of the Guideline Development Group (GDG) for the controversial CFS/ME NICE guidelines CG53, which were published in 2007. The guidelines recommended cognitive behavioral therapy and graded exercise therapy as the only main treatments for ME/CFS in the UK. The were heavily criticized, with significant rates of harm reported by patents. In 2019, a survey on behalf of NICE found significant rates of harm caused by both treatments.[20]

PACE trial support and Science Media Centre[edit | edit source]

Crawley was on of the experts chosen by the Science Media Centre to comment on the PACE trial publications in February 2011 and January 2013. She said “All children with chronic fatigue syndrome and their parents are desperate for new research to understand how to treat this condition. The next step is to do a study like this for children to find out if these treatments work.”[21][22]

She also stated in a BBC interview that the PACE trial was “a great, great study.” [23]

Smearing critics as "anti-science" and unauthorised use of personal photos[edit | edit source]

Esther Crawley presented at a conference in April 2017 in which she accused all critics of her work being "anti-science" and being harassed. She smeared patient groups, scientists and Dr David Tuller. She inferred about patients being drug users, criminals, with financial and relationship problems. She also defamed a US college student whose picture she took without any permission and used in her presentation. [24][25]

Continued gaslighting of ME patients & advocates in science conferences[edit | edit source]

Crawley continued her smear campaign and theme of portraying sick and disabled ME patients and advocates and other scientists of criticising her flawed science as harassment and abusive and militants at a 'Better Science Better Data' conference in October 2017[26]. She provided no actual evidence of her claims of harassment and instead made numerous statements which were seen as smearinv all disabled ME patients and advocates who advocate for biomedical research as "fake news" [27].

Claims of death threats and harassment[edit | edit source]

Prof. Crawley has claimed to have received death threats and to have been subject to harassment,[28] but has not provide any evidence or details in support of her claim.

The Young ME Sufferers Trust was concerned about the repeated accusations of harassment by Crawley the PACE trial authors and submitted a Freedom of Information Act (FOI) request to her employer, the University of Bristol. The request to the university was followed up, then escalated to the UK's Information Commissioner, who instructed the university to comply with the request. The University of Bristol eventually responded "We have received no official reports of harassment of University staff by a third party between September 2010 and June 2015." Therefore there was no evidence of any harassment despite the campaign in the media and science conferences.[29]

An article was published 'Esther Crawley claims harassment, university has no record' examining the Freedom of Information request and the alleged claims of widespread threats and harassment to Esther Crawley and stated "a Freedom of Information request to her own institution by the Tymes Trust, revealed that no such incidents had been reported to them." The article examined a number of alleged claims of harassment and threats and that they had been rejected by the courts in the PACE trial tribunal. Also that some threats and repeated by Crawley in a number of live talks which she implied were sent to her were false as it transpired it was actually an artist's illustration used in a magazine article cover.

Subsequently the University of Bristol published a confusing statement on their website and stated that it was aware "Professor Crawley in particular has experienced significant harassment and personal abuse over several years". This was inconsistent with the actual official FOI response. It explained that "The University does not have a process for 'official recording' of harassment by third parties of our members of staff hence the response to this FOI request" Voices from the Shadows commented on the controversy in their article 'Bristol University both denies and supports Prof Crawley in her career enhancing “heroic victim” narrative'. They stated of the inconsistency "However, this is seriously at odds with their website, which now echoes the accusations Prof Esther Crawley has been making very publicly at several lectures this year" and "[i]f this really is true, then the University has given a fraudulent response to the Freedom of Information requests."

MUPPETS conference[edit | edit source]

Esther Crawley presented at a conference advertised as A day with the MUPP(ET)S on 18 May 2017[30]. The term Muppets is a derogatory word meaning stupid person, but MUPP is also a term used for medically unexplained persistent physical symptoms, also known as medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). ME patients and charities condemned the title of the muppets talk. The Tymes Trust issued condemnation [31]. The offensive name of the talk was reported in local media, and was changed prior to the event. [32] It is not known who chose the name of the event.

Buzzfeed investigation[edit | edit source]

Buzzfeed reported on the controversy and issues surrounding Esther Crawley and the SMILE trial and other related controversies in their article A Controversial Therapy For ME Has Led To Claims Of Death Threats, Harassment, And Pseudoscience.[33] Buzzfeed investigated the issues and for balance spoke to both Dr David Tuller and Prof Esther Crawley. Dr Crawley responded to some issues but the article stated "Crawley declined to talk about the issue when asked by BuzzFeed News "in relation to her allegations about libel and harassment. Bristol University responded to some issues but on the point about serious issues about probity raised by Prof Edwards, "Bristol said it didn’t feel it was appropriate to comment on this."

Dr Tuller commented on Crawley's attempts to justify her methodological choices in the article 'Professor Crawley's Bogus Buzzfeed claims'.[34]

Open letter to TEDxBristol regarding Crawley's talk "Disrupting Your View of ME"[edit | edit source]

Esther Crawley continued with her talks and presented at a TEDxBristol talk called "Disrupting Your View of ME" on 2 November 2017 [35] in which she claimed she was disrupting the views of the illness and was the voice of patients. TEDx are not the official TED conferences but TEDx are independent TED-like events, which can be organized by anyone who obtains a free license from TED [36]. This was at the same time during the Unrest film campaign in which Jennifer Brea promoted the film in the UK media for the launch. On the 15th December 2017, Carly Maryhew, one of the co-authors of the PACE trial data re-analysis, sent an open letter[37] to TEDxBristol, explaining, in part, "the contents of that talk did not seem to comply with the standards of TEDx, as described in the TEDx Content Guidelines.[1] While that might be sufficient to result in the video merely being displayed with a warning regarding the contents, there are other portions of Professor Crawley's presentation which are highly offensive". The letter stated "Not only is she promoting blatant pseudoscience and making false accusations against the patients who oppose her work, she goes so far as to brazenly suggest that she should be our voice....All Professor Crawley needs to do is to stop attempting to silence us."

The TedxBristol talk was recorded and is available on-line[38].

ME advocate Jennifer Brea tried to avoid singling out a single researcher but finally wrote[39] about Esther Crawley's behaviour stating that "You do not need to "provide our voice." and that disabled ME sufferers have voices which they use daily.[40]

Criticism of Crawley by scientific community and her attempts to silence such criticism[edit | edit source]

Dr David Tuller has criticised Crawley's approach to science and challenged her on her accusations that he was engaging in libellous blogging [41]. She did not respond to attempts at discussion and contact.

Tuller then attended a talk by Esther Crawley called “What is new in paediatric CFS/ME research” at the University of Exeter's Mood Disorders Centre [42]. Crawley again repeated her accusation of harassment in the talk but did not specifically mention Virology blog as libellous. She refused to answer the questions and stopped the talk. Tuller also concluded that "I believe that Professor Crawley wants to bully those who raise concerns about her work into silence rather than engaging in robust debate about the very real methodological and ethical problems with her studies."

Crawley stated that a "cease and desist letter" had been sent in the talk and that she also mentioned the notion of consulting with the police over the matter. Dr Tuller did not receive any cease and desist letter and wrote to the University of Bristol legal department to enquire about whether such a letter had been written and what he was supposed to cease and desist from [43].

Her university did not respond so Tuller pursued the matter further and posted another article examining the issue and then a response was sent in which the legal department stated "If by a ‘cease and desist’ letter you mean a letter threatening legal action if the recipient does not stop a specified activity or behaviour, then I can confirm that the University of Bristol has not sent you or your institution such a letter" [44]. Crawley had again made a false statement over the sending of a cease and desist letter.

Dr Tuller has since published all his attempts at contact with Esther Crawley to discuss and attempt to resolve matters in his post [45] in which she failed to respond to any of his emails. It transpired that Esther Crawley and Bristol university did send a letter to Tuller's employer, the University of Berkeley to threaten and effectively silence his investigations into her work. However the University of Berkeley reviewed the matter and confirmed that he did nothing wrong, and affirmed his right as a public health journalist to continue his work.[46]

SMILE Trial: Editorial correction and calls for retraction[edit | edit source]

Dr. Nick Brown, Editor-in-Chief Archives of Disease in Childhood, BMJ, added an Editor's Note to the trial article 'Clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Lightning Process in addition to specialist medical care for paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome: randomized controlled trial'.[47] Despite considerable well-founded criticism, the journal chose not to retract the publication.

Editor's note

This study was published online in Archives of Disease in Childhood after peer review in September 2017. The trial tested the effectiveness of a neurolinguistic programming intervention (used widely but never formally tested) in children and young people with chronic fatigue recruited between 2010 and 2013. Though the number of participants was small, analysis suggested a benefit in terms of physical function (measured by the standard SF 36 scale) at both 6 and 12 months after intervention.
Since publication, the study has been criticised for failing to meet ICMJE and BMJ policy on trial registration and for not fully adhering to CONSORT guidance on trial reporting. The journal has been criticised for not detecting these issues during editorial and peer review. We have acknowledged these comments and reviewed our processes in relation to this paper and relating to EQUATOR guidance in general. In addition, we have received clarifications from the authors which are under editorial consideration.[47]

Ethics investigation by University of Bristol[edit | edit source]

In 2019, University of Bristol announced it was investigating Professor Esther Crawley for research ethics violations, after being informed that she had published multiple ME/CFS articles using a research exemption obtained for an unrelated "school absence" study.[48][49][50] These publications included a systematic review of ME/CFS treatment outcomes in adults, using data from the United Kingdom National Outcome Database. David Tuller, a public health researcher, has expressed uncertainty about the independence of this investigation.

BBC Complaint[edit | edit source]

Prof. Esther Crawley was interviewed on the BBC's Victoria Derbyshire show in 2016, along with Jane Colby of the Tymes Trust, about the launch of the FITNET-NHS trial involving cognitive behavioral therapy for children and young people with chronic fatigue syndrome. The BBC used briefing information from the Science Media Centre in both the Victoria Derbyshire show the BBC news online article, both of which were subject to a complaint, with the BBC Trust supporting several elements of the complaint, including that the Dutch FITNET study's results were "overstated".[51] The BBC online article was amended as a result of the complaint.[51]

Minimizing severe ME[edit | edit source]

Despite the well-recognized fact that 25% of patients with ME have severe ME, with the UK charity for severe ME being called the 25% ME Group, Prof. Crawley has claimed the true figure is just 10% severely ill.[52] Prof. Crawley has been carrying out a number of different studies about the prevalence of ME/CFS in the UK using data from either schools or GPs, however many severely ill patients are housebound and don't have any medical professionals involved in their care due to a refusal to do home visits, and/or a refusal to accept that ME/CFS can be severe, or even life threatening.[53][54]

Freedom of information requests[edit | edit source]

A number of Freedom of Information Act requests have been made to Dr Crawley about her work. One request revealed records were not kept of patients subsequently re-diagnosed with another illness at Dr Crawley's paediatric clinic.[55]

Rejection of Canadian Consensus Criteria for ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

In an reply to an Editorial in the British Medical Journal by Fiona Godlee, Crawley (with Peter White and Alastair Miller) rejected using the Canadian Consensus Criteria to diagnose patients, labeling it as "not practical", although conceding post-exertional malaise (which is part of the criteria) "may need incorporating in future definitions to help differentiate CFS from more general fatigue."[56][57]

Prevalence at Age 16[edit | edit source]

In a study[58] published in 2016 using data from almost 6000 children in the Children of the 90s Project[59], Crawley and her team concluded that the prevalence of CFS at age 16 was 1.8%. However, the children were included as having CFS on the basis of questionnaires, no doctors were involved in the diagnosis, and there was no attempt to exclude other fatigue-related conditions except depression. If children reporting depressive thoughts were excluded, the prevalence was reduced to 0.6%, but the 1.8% figure was highlighted in the media. BBC Radio 4 coverage[60] described the condition studied as ‘ME also known as chronic fatigue syndrome’. Dr Charles Shepherd of the ME Association wrote to express concerns about the methodology used but the journal did not publish his letter[61]

Media coverage and interviews[edit | edit source]

Interviews, talks and blogs[edit | edit source]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

  • 2011, The impact of CFS/ME on employment and productivity in the UK: a cross-sectional study based on the CFS/ME national outcomes database[65] - (Full text)
  • 2013, Treatment outcome in adults with chronic fatigue syndrome: a prospective study in England based on the CFS/ME National Outcomes Database[53] - (Full text)
  • 2013, The feasibility and acceptability of conducting a trial of specialist medical care and the Lightning Process in children with chronic fatigue syndrome: feasibility randomized controlled trial (SMILE study)[5] - (Full text)
  • 2013, Comparing specialist medical care with specialist medical care plus the Lightning Process® for chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (SMILE Trial)[66] - (Full text)
  • 2013, Depression in paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome[67] - (Full text) - partly funded by Action for ME
  • 2014, G160(P) Case series of Pervasive Refusal Syndrome presenting Chronic Fatigue: avoiding the pitfall of a wrong diagnosis[16] - (Full text)
  • 2015, Maternal and childhood psychological factors predict chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years’. Journal of Adolescent Health[68] - (Full text)
  • 2016, Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptom-based phenotypes in two clinical cohorts of adult patients in the UK and The Netherlands[3] - (Full text)
  • 2016, "It’s personal to me": A qualitative study of depression in young people with CFS/ME[69] - (Full text)
  • 2016, Managed Activity Graded Exercise iN Teenagers and pre-Adolescents (MAGENTA) feasibility randomised controlled trial: study protocol[10] - (Full text)
  • 2016, Obesity in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: an observational study’. Archives of disease in childhood[70] - (Full text)
  • 2016, Children’s experiences of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): A systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies[71] - (Abstract)
  • 2016, Treatment for paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and comorbid depression: a systematic review[72] - (Full text)
  • 2017, A qualitative investigation of eating difficulties in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis[73] - (Full text)
  • 2017, Natural course of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis in adolescents[74] - (Full text)
  • 2017, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Chronic Widespread Pain in Adolescence: Population Birth Cohort Study[75] - (Full text)
  • 2017, Trends in the incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in the UK, 2001–2013: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study[54] - (Full Text)
  • 2017, Adult patients’ experiences of NHS specialist services for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME): a qualitative study in England[76]

SMILE trial: before editorial correction

  • 2017, Clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Lightning Process in addition to specialist medical care for paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome: randomised controlled trial[77](Full text)


  • 2018, Childhood sleep and adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME): evidence of associations in a UK birth cohort[78] - (Full Text)
  • 2018, Defining the minimally clinically important difference of the SF-36 physical function subscale for paediatric CFS/ME: triangulation using three different methods[79] - (Full text)

SMILE trial: Editorial correction

Online presence[edit | edit source]

Directorships and Shareholdings[edit | edit source]

Esther Madeleine Crawley has 1 total appointment.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Action for ME. "Action for ME announces grant for Esther Crawley on incidence Severe Paediatric ME". 
  2. "CMRC Executive Board and Becoming a Member". Retrieved Jul 17, 2019. 
  3. 3.03.1 Collin, Simon M.; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Heron, Jon; Knoop, Hans; White, Peter D.; Crawley, Esther (Feb 2016). "Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptom-based phenotypes in two clinical cohorts of adult patients in the UK and The Netherlands". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 81: 14–23. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.12.006. ISSN 1879-1360. PMID 26800634. 
  4. Action for ME (2016). "ME/CFS Research Funding - CMRC (Sept 2016)" (PDF). 
  5. 5.05.1 Crawley, Esther; Mills, Nicola; Beasant, Lucy; Johnson, Debbie; Collin, Simon M; Deans, Zuzana; White, Kate; Montgomery, Alan (2013). "The feasibility and acceptability of conducting a trial of specialist medical care and the Lightning Process in children with chronic fatigue syndrome: feasibility randomized controlled trial (SMILE study)". Trials. 14 (415). doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-415. 
  6. The ME Association (Mar 2010). "£164,000 grant for study into the Lightning Process and children with ME - ME Association (March 2010)". 
  7. "SMILE Protocol documents: Bristol University December 2013" (PDF). Dec 2013. 
  8. Coyne, James (Oct 3, 2016). "Bristol University Refuses to Disclose Money Paid for Quack Therapy - James Coyne (Oct 2016)". 
  9. "The MAGENTA trial: can we investigate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of managed activity compared to graded exercise in teenagers and pre-adolescents". UK Clinical Trials Gateway. 
  10. 10.010.1 Brigden, Amberly; Beasant, Lucy; Hollingworth, William; Metcalfe, Chris; Gaunt, Daisy; Mills, Nicola; Jago, Russell; Crawley, Esther (Jul 4, 2016). "Managed Activity Graded Exercise iN Teenagers and pre-Adolescents (MAGENTA) feasibility randomised controlled trial: study protocol". BMJ open. 6 (7): –011255. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011255. ISSN 2044-6055. PMC 4947787Freely accessible. PMID 27377634. 
  11. Tuller, David (Sep 17, 2018). "Trial By Error: So What's Happening with the MAGENTA Trial?". Virology blog. Retrieved Oct 20, 2018. 
  12. "FITNET to treat Paediatric CFS/ME (NIHR)". NIHR. 
  13. Tuller, David. "Trial By Error, Continued: The New FITNET Trial for Kids". Virology blog. 
  14. Tuller, David. "Trial By Error, Continued: A Follow-Up Post on FITNET-NHS". Virology blog. 
  15. "Backlash for 'landmark' University research trials". Epigram. Nov 2016. 
  16. 16.016.1 Herberholz, N.; Collin, S.; McCowat, A.; Crawley, E. (Apr 1, 2014). "G160(P) Case series of Pervasive Refusal Syndrome presenting with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: avoiding the pitfall of a wrong diagnosis" (PDF). Archives of Disease in Childhood. 99 (Suppl 1): A70–A70. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306237.168. ISSN 0003-9888. Clinicians should think about PRS in patients with refusal symptoms affecting, eating, social interaction, self-care, mobility and treatment. Patients have extremely high levels of fatigue and/or disability. Postexertional fatigue and disrupted sleep occur but patients are less likely to have characteristic symptoms of CFS/ME such as unrefreshing sleep. The diagnosis of PRS is important as the treatment is different 
  17. Jaspers, Tine; Hanssen, G. M. J.; van der Valk, Judith A.; Hanekom, Johann H.; van Well, Gijs Th. J.; Schieveld, Jan N. M. (Nov 2009). "Pervasive refusal syndrome as part of the refusal–withdrawal–regression spectrum: critical review of the literature illustrated by a case report". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 18 (11): 645–651. doi:10.1007/s00787-009-0027-6. ISSN 1018-8827. PMC 2762526Freely accessible. PMID 19458987. 
  18. The treatment for pervasive refusal syndrome as described here for PRS, is exactly the same as the protocols used by patients worldwide, experienced clinicians, Dr. Nigel Speight.
  19. "GMC Complaint - Dr Esther Crawley". Jul 31, 2011. 
  20. ME Association (Apr 3, 2019). "Forward ME and Oxford Brookes University announce results of patient survey on CBT and GET in ME/CFS 3 April 2019". 
  21. "Expert reaction to Lancet study looking at treatments for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ME - Science Media Centre Feb. 17, 2011". Feb 17, 2011. 
  22. "Expert reaction to new research into therapies for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ME - Science Media Centre Jan. 31, 2013". Science Media Centre. Jan 31, 2013. 
  23. "Radio on ME/CFS Sat 5th Nov 9-10amGMT". Phoenix Rising. 
  24. http://forums.phoenixrising.me/index.php?threads/crawley-how-to-deal-with-anti-science-brs2017.51066/page-3#post-842717
  25. http://forums.phoenixrising.me/index.php?threads/crawley-how-to-deal-with-anti-science-brs2017.51066/page-3#post-842718
  26. "Better Science through Better Data 2017 (#scidata17) Tickets, Wed, 25 Oct 2017 at 09:00 | Eventbrite". web.archive.org. Aug 18, 2017. Retrieved Jul 17, 2019. 
  27. https://www.facebook.com/scientificdata/videos/1410989405696093/
  28. ME Association (Jul 29, 2011). "Death threats saga - transcript of discussion on BBC radio 4 today programme 29 July 2011". 
  29. The Young ME Sufferers Trust. "No harassment at Bristol University" (PDF). 
  30. "Meeting". Internet Archive. May 18, 2017. 
  31. The Young ME Sufferers Trust. "The MUPP(ETS) Conference". facebook.com. 
  32. "Esther Crawley - 18th May 2017 - A day with the MUPP(ets) and more". Phoenix Rising ME / CFS Forums. Retrieved Jul 17, 2019. 
  33. Chivers, Tom. "A Controversial Therapy For ME Has Led To Claims Of Death Threats, Harassment, And Pseudoscience". Buzzfeed. 
  34. Tuller, David. "Trial By Error: Professor Crawley's Bogus BuzzFeed Claims". Virology blog. Retrieved Jul 17, 2019. 
  35. TEDxBristol. "TEDxBristol: The Speakers". TEDxBristol. Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  36. "TEDx Program". www.ted.com. Retrieved Jul 17, 2019. 
  37. "Open letter to TEDxBristol regarding Esther Crawley's presentation on 2 November 2017". Science for ME. Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  38. Crawley, Esther (Nov 2, 2017). "TEDx talk" (MP4) (Video). 
  39. Brea, Jennifer (Dec 30, 2017). "I've made a practice of not publicly calling out Esther Crawley in part because the issues we face are so much bigger than any one researcher". @jenbrea. Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  40. "Thread by @jenbrea: "I've made a practice of not publicly calling out Esther Crawley in part because the issues we face are so much bigger than any one researche […]"". threadreaderapp.com. Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  41. Tuller, David (May 3, 2017). "Trial By Error, Continued: My Libelous Blogging on Virology Blog". Virology blog. Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  42. Tuller, David (Nov 20, 2017). "Trial By Error: My Brief Encounter with Professor Crawley". Virology blog. Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  43. Tuller, David (Nov 22, 2017). "Trial By Error: Hey Bristol, Where Is My Cease and Desist Letter?". Virology blog. Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  44. "Trial By Error: The Crawley Chronicles, Continued". www.virology.ws. Retrieved Jul 17, 2019. 
  45. Tuller, David (Dec 4, 2017). "Trial By Error: My One-Sided Correspondence with Professor Crawley". Virology blog. Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  46. "Trial By Error: Bristol's Complaint to Berkeley". Virology blog. Dec 23, 2017. Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  47. 47.047.147.2 Brown, Nick (Jul 2019). "Editor's Note on Correction to Crawley et al 2018". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 
  48. Tuller, David (Feb 3, 2019). "Trial By Error: A Recap of the School Absence Study". Virology blog. Retrieved Jul 17, 2019. 
  49. "Trial By Error: Bristol Investigating Crawley Papers". www.virology.ws. Retrieved Jul 17, 2019. 
  50. "Trial By Error: A Bit More About Bristol's Investigation". www.virology.ws. Retrieved Jul 17, 2019. 
  51. 51.051.1 BBC Trust (Mar 2017). "Editorial Standards Findings Appeals to the Trust and other editorial issues considered by the Editorial Standards Committee: Decisions by the Head of Editorial Standards, Trust Unit February and March 2017" (PDF). Retrieved Mar 2, 2019. 
  52. BBC Radio 4 (2007). "Case notes: Programme number 10 - ME" (Transcript). Archived from the original on Dec 21, 2007. 
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Cognitive behavioral therapy[citation needed]

Graded Exercise Therapy, a gradual increase in exercise or activity, according to a pre-defined plan.<ref name="pace2011a">{{Cite journal

Myalgic encephalomyelitis or M.E. has different diagnostic criteria to chronic fatigue syndrome; neurological symptoms are required but fatigue is an optional symptom.<ref name="ICP2011primer">{{Citation

Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome


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