Muscle spasm

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Muscle spasms or cramp, also known as involuntary hypertonicity, are unintentional and painful muscle contractions.[1] The pain from spasms is very sharp and intense, for example waking someone suddenly in the night, and the muscle may sometimes look hard under the skin.[2] Spasms can make it impossible to use the muscle temporarily.[2]

Prevalence[edit | edit source]

Symptom recognition[edit | edit source]

Muscle spasms are not considered a diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS, but have been found to occur in people with ME/CFS.[3][4][5]

Muscle spasm is a potential symptom of Long COVID in the World Health Organization's definition.[6]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

Possible causes[edit | edit source]

Muscle spasms can occur as a result of many different illnesses including:

Spasms can also be caused by

  • injury
  • dehydration
  • prolonged exercise, especially in hot weather
  • low levels of potassium, magnesium or calcium, which can result from using diuretics
  • pregnancy
  • nerve compression, particularly in the spine.[1][2]

Treatments[edit | edit source]

Drugs that treat spams are known as muscle relaxants or antispasmodics.[1]

The Canadian Consensus Criteria suggests treating muscle spasms in ME/CFS with:

  • Heat, both general and local heat
  • Baclofen (used off-label)[4]

The International Consensus Criteria primer for clinicians suggests using magnesium sulphate.[3]

Muscle spasms can also be treated with skeletal and muscle relaxants such as carisoprodol, metaxalone, methocarbamol, tizanidine, orphenadrine and cyclobenzapine.[1]

Alternative drugs for muscle spasms include diazepam (Valium), and medical marijuana (cannabis), although this has less scientific evidence.[1]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.01.11.21.31.41.5 "Muscle spasm (Involuntary Hypertonicity)". drugs.com. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  2. 2.02.12.22.32.4 "Muscle cramp". drugs.com. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  3. 3.03.1 Carruthers, BM; van de Sande, MI; De Meirleir, KL; Klimas, NG; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, ACP; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Bell, DS; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Gerken, A; Jo, D; Lewis, DP; Light, AR; Light, KC; Marshall-Gradisnik, S; McLaren-Howard, J; Mena, I; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Stevens, SR (2012), Myalgic encephalomyelitis: Adult & Paediatric: International Consensus Primer for Medical Practitioners (PDF), ISBN 978-0-9739335-3-6
  4. 4.04.14.24.3 Carruthers, Bruce M.; Jain, Anil Kumar; De Meirleir, Kenny L.; Peterson, Daniel L.; Klimas, Nancy G.; Lerner, A. Martin; Bested, Alison C.; Flor-Henry, Pierre; Joshi, Pradip; Powles, A C Peter; Sherkey, Jeffrey A.; van de Sande, Marjorie I. (2003). "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Clinical Working Case Definition, Diagnostic and Treatment Protocols" (PDF). Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 11 (2): 7–115. doi:10.1300/J092v11n01_02.
  5. Fukuda, K.; Straus, S. E.; Hickie, I.; Sharpe, M. C.; Dobbins, J. G.; Komaroff, A. (December 15, 1994). "The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group" (PDF). Annals of Internal Medicine. American College of Physicians. 121 (12): 953–959. ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 7978722.
  6. Soriano, Joan B.; Allan, Maya; Alsokhn, Carine; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Askie, Lisa; Davis, Hannah E.; Diaz, Janet V.; Dua, Tarun; de Groote, Wouter; Jakob, Robert; Lado, Marta; Marshall, John; Murthy, Srin; Preller, Jacobus; Relan, Pryanka; Schiess, Nicoline; Seahwag, Archana (October 6, 2021), A clinical case definition of post COVID-19 condition by a Delphi consensus, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical case definition working group on post COVID-19 condition, World Health Organization

World Health Organization (WHO) - "A specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations." The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is maintained by WHO.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.