Biogenesis[edit | edit source]
Mitochondrial biogenesis (the creation of new mitochondria) can be increased via hormesis, the exposure of the body to short-term stressors. Healthy stressors include exercise, fasting, cold, heat and light. Resveratrol may also increase mitochondrial biogenesis.
Infection and immunity[edit | edit source]
Mitochondria play crucial role in innate immunity, namely through their induction of interferon production and apoptosis through mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). Many viruses, including Coxsackievirus B3, echovirus 7, and enterovirus 71 inhibit interferon induction and evade host immunity by cleaving or downregulating MAVS.
In human disease[edit | edit source]
Infection with pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites, can all induce changes in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism.
Viruses can induce or inhibit mitochondrial processes in order to replicate. "Viruses like Herpes simplex virus 1 deplete the host mitochondrial DNA and some, like human immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis C Virus, hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell."Hepatitis C has also been shown to "fragment host mitochondria".
Parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii have also been shown to modulate host energy metabolism and dysregulate mitochondrial function, as have bacteria such as E. coli (Escherichia coli), which has been shown to modulate mitochondrial receptor function.
Mitochondrial diseases have a high prevalence of fatigue and debilitation, with the severity of disease predicting the level of fatigue; Gorman et al (2015) found the degree of muscle weakness was not related to fatigue severity.
Chronic fatigue syndrome[edit | edit source]
There is evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Muscle biopsies have shown evidence of mitochondrial degeneration, deletions of mitochondrial DNA, the reduction of mitochondrial activity, and Sarah Myhill found measurable mitochondrial dysfunction correlating with severity of illness. Myhill also produced improvement by targeting those dysfunctions. Mitochondrial DNA variants correlate with symptoms, symptom clusters & symptom severity.
There is evidence of genetic risk factors for mitochondrial dysfunction in related diseases such as complex regional pain syndrome, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), and dysautonomia.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 1997, Chronic fatigue syndrome and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function
- 2015, Metabolic profiling reveals anomalous energy metabolism and oxidative stress pathways in chronic fatigue syndrome patients
- 2016, Exercise-induced mitochondrial dysfunction: a myth or reality?
- 2016, Pharmacological NAD-Boosting Strategies Improve Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Human Complex I-Mutant Fibroblasts
- 2018, Parkin and PINK1 mitigate STING-induced inflammation
Videos[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
- Cellular respiration
- Ketogenic diet
- Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)
- NT Factor
- Robert Naviaux
- Sarah Myhill
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- CFS - The Central Cause - Mitochondrial Failure
- Wikipedia - Mitochondrion
- 2016, Immune System Conserves Energy By Altering Metabolism
- 2016, ME Association to fund fourth study into the role of the mitochondria in ME/CFS
- 2016, ME Association Goes All in on the Mitochondria in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)
- 2016, Australian metabolomics study of young women with ME/CFS (CCC)
- 2016, "Mitochondria Man Gets Money UK Goes Mega Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Moves Forward"
Unused Citations[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Yu, Chia-Yi (December 2009). "The Interferon Stimulator Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein Facilitates Cell Death by Disrupting the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and by Activating Caspases". Journal of Virology.
- Mukherjee, A (March 2011). "The coxsackievirus B 3C protease cleaves MAVS and TRIF to attenuate host type I interferon and apoptotic signaling". PLoS Pathology. 7.
- Derakhshan, Mohammed (Aug 1, 2006). "Human herpesvirus 1 protein US3 induces an inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport". Journal of General Virology. 87: 2155–2159.
- Koundouris, A (May 2000). "Poliovirus Induces an Early Impairment of Mitochondrial Function by Inhibiting Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 271: 610–4.
- Ripoli, Maria (October 2009). "Hepatitis C Virus-Linked Mitochondrial Dysfunction Promotes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α-Mediated Glycolytic Adaptation". Journal of Virology.
- Anand, Sanjeev K; Tikoo, Suresh K (Oct 24, 2013), "Viruses as Modulators of Mitochondrial Functions", Advances in Virology, Advances in Virology, 2013, 2013: –738794, doi:10.1155/2013/738794
- Siu, GK; Zhou, F; Yu, MK; Zhang, L; Wang, T; Liang, Y; Chen, Y; Chan, HC; Yu, S (March 2016), "Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein cooperates with phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα to induce mitochondrial fragmentation", Sci. Rep., doi:10.1038/srep23464, PMID 27010100
- Saric, J; Li, JV; Swann, JR; et al. (Nov 8, 2010), "Integrated cytokine and metabolic analysis of pathological responses to parasite exposure in rodents", Journal of proteome research, 9: 2255–2264
- Rudel T, T; Kepp O, O; Kozjak-Pavlovic V, V (October 2010), "Interactions between bacterial pathogens and mitochondrial cell death pathways", Nat Rev Microbiol., doi:10.1038/nrmicro2421, PMID 20818415
- Nagai, T; Abe, A; Sasakawa, C (January 2005), "Targeting of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli EspF to host mitochondria is essential for bacterial pathogenesis: critical role of the 16th leucine residue in EspF", J Bio. Chem., doi:10.1074/jbc.M411550200, PMID 15533930
- Gorman, Grainne S.; Elson, Joanna L.; Newman, Jane; Payne, Brendan; McFarland, Bobby; Newton, Julia L.; Turnbull, Doug M. (2015). "Perceived fatigue is highly prevalent and debilitating in patients with mitochondrial disease". Neuromuscular Disorders. 25 (7): 563–566. doi:10.1016/j.nmd.2015.03.001.
- Behan, WMH; More, IAR; Behan, PO (1991), "Mitochondrial abnormalities in the postviral fatigue syndrome", Acta Neuropathologica, 83 (1): 61–65, PMID 1792865
- Vecchiet, L; Montanari, G; Pizzigallo, E; et al. (Apr 19, 1996), "Sensory characterization of somatic parietal tissues in humans with chronic fatigue syndrome", Neuroscience Letters, 208 (2): 117–120, PMID 8859904
- Zhang, C; Baumer, A; Mackay, IR; et al. (Apr 1995), "Unusual pattern of mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle of an adult human with chronic fatigue syndrome", Human Molecular Genetics, 4 (4): 751–754, PMID 7633428
- Booth, NE; Myhill, S; McLaren-Howard, J (2012), "Mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathophysiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)", Int J Clin Exp Med, 5 (3): 208–220, PMID 22837795
- Myhill, S; Booth, NE; McLaren-Howard, J (Jan 15, 2009), "Chronic fatigue syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction", Int J Clin Exp Med, 2 (1): 1–16, PMID 19436827
- Myhill, Sarah; Booth, NE; McLaren-Howard, John (2013), "Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in the treatment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) - a clinical audit.", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, PMID 23236553
- Billing-Ross, Paul; Germain, Arnaud; Ye, Kaixiong; et al. (2016), "Mitochondrial DNA variants correlate with symptoms in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome", Journal of Translational Medicine, 14: 19, doi:10.1186/s12967-016-0771-6, ISSN 1479-5876, PMID 26791940, lay summary
- Galán, Fernando; de Lavera, Isabel; Cotán, David; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A (Sep 24, 2015), "Mitochondrial Myopathy in Follow-up of a Patient With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep, 3 (3), doi:10.1177/2324709615607908, PMID 26904705
- Boles, RG; Zaki, EA; Kerr, JR; et al. (Jul 2015), "Increased prevalence of two mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in functional disease: Are we describing different parts of an energy-depleted elephant?", Mitochondrion, 23: 1-6, doi:10.1016/j.mito.2015.04.005, PMID 25934187
- Lodi, R.; Taylor, D. J.; Radda, G. K. (1997). "Chronic fatigue syndrome and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function". Muscle & Nerve. 20 (6): 765–766. ISSN 0148-639X. PMID 9149090.
- Armstrong, Christopher W.; McGregor, Neil R.; Lewis, Neil R.; Butt, Henry L.; Gooley, Paul R. (May 22, 2015). "Metabolic profiling reveals anomalous energy metabolism and oxidative stress pathways in chronic fatigue syndrome patients" (PDF). meaustralia.
- Ostojic, Sergej M. (Aug 1, 2016). "Exercise-induced mitochondrial dysfunction: a myth or reality?". Clinical Science (London, England: 1979). 130 (16): 1407–1416. doi:10.1042/CS20160200. ISSN 1470-8736. PMID 27389587.
- Felici, Roberta; Lapucci, Andrea; Cavone, Leonardo; Pratesi, Sara; Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Chiarugi, Alberto (2015). "Pharmacological NAD-Boosting Strategies Improve Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Human Complex I-Mutant Fibroblasts". Molecular Pharmacology. 87 (6): 965–971. doi:10.1124/mol.114.097204. ISSN 1521-0111. PMID 25788480.
- Sliter, Danielle A.; Martinez, Jennifer; Hao, Ling; Chen, Xi; Sun, Nuo; Fischer, Tara D.; Burman, Jonathon L.; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zhe (Aug 22, 2018). "Parkin and PINK1 mitigate STING-induced inflammation". Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0448-9. ISSN 0028-0836.
- Andersen, Paul (May 5, 2016). "Mitochondria: The Powerhouse of the Cell". YouTube. Bozeman Science.
- "CFS - The Central Cause: Mitochondrial Failure - DoctorMyhill". www.drmyhill.co.uk. Retrieved Sep 6, 2018.
- Marker, Kara (Jul 10, 2016). "Immune System Conserves Energy By Altering Metabolism". LabRoots. Retrieved Sep 6, 2018.
- "ME Association to fund fourth study into the role of the mitochondria in ME/CFS | 10 March 2016". www.meassociation.org.uk. Retrieved Sep 6, 2018.
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- Nimmo, Sasha (Jul 6, 2016). "Australian metabolomics study of young women with ME/CFS (CCC)". ME Australia. Retrieved Sep 6, 2018.
- Johnson, Cort (May 19, 2016). "The Mitochondria Man Gets His Money and The UK Goes MEGA: ME/CFS Research Moving Forward - Health Rising". Health Rising. Retrieved Sep 6, 2018.
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- Craig, Courtney (Nov 2015), "Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets", Medical Hypotheses, 85 (5): 690-693, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2015.08.013, PMID 26315446
- Vermeulen, RC; Kirk, RM; Visser, FC; Sluiter, W; Scholte, HR (October 2010), "Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome performed worse than controls in a controlled repeated exercise study despite a normal oxidative phosphorylation capacity", Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/1479-5876-8-93, PMID 20937116
- Maes, M; Mihaylova, I; Kubera, M; Uytterhoeven, M; Vrydags, N; Bosmans, E (2009), "Coenzyme Q10 deficiency in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is related to fatigue, autonomic and neurocognitive symptoms and is another risk factor explaining the early mortality in ME/CFS due to cardiovascular disorder", Neuro Endocrinol Lett., PMID 20010505
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Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome