Photophobia, also known as light sensitivity, is a symptom of abnormal visual intolerance to light. It can manifest as discomfort or pain. It occurs in ME/CFS as part of a range of sensitivities such as allodynia, hyperacusis and misophonia. Photophobia also forms part of the wide range of ocular symptoms that occur in ME/CFS.
Prevalence[edit | edit source]
- In a 2001 Belgian study, 70.7% of patients meeting the Fukuda criteria and 75.8% of patients meeting the Holmes criteria, in a cohort of 2073 CFS patients, reported photophobia.
- A 2013 study by Hutchinson, et al, using a patient population of 59 answering questions on the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire (DSQ) found that the most common vision-related symptom was sensitivity to bright lights with a 92% prevalence.
Symptom recognition[edit | edit source]
Photophobia is not a symptom required for diagnosis in any definition. In the Canadian Consensus Criteria (CCC), it appears under the section Neurological/Cognitive Manifestations and can be used to form a diagnosis. The International Consensus Criteria (ICC) also lists photophobia as a diagnostic criteria, under the section Neurosensory, perceptual and motor disturbances.
- In the Holmes criteria, photophobia is an optional criteria for diagnosis, under the section Minor Symptom Criteria - Neuropsychologic Complaints.
No other definitions mention photophobia.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 2013, Vision-related symptoms as a clinical feature of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis? Evidence from the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire (Abstract)
Possible causes[edit | edit source]
Photophobia can be caused by the pupil dilating rather than contracting when exposed to a light source. Pupil dilation is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, which is usually hyper-responsive in people with ME/CFS due to an excess of excitatory neurotransmitters.
Photophobia is also often caused by illnesses that are common comorbidities of ME/CFS, such as migraines,Ehlers-Danlos syndrome,infectious mononucleosis,chiari malformation,dyslexia, and lyme disease.
Potential treatments[edit | edit source]
There are no treatments that specifically target photophobia. It is usually resolved by treating the underlying cause. Treatable causes of photophobia include magnesium deficiency, and when photophobia occurs as a side-effect of medication. If the photophobia is caused by a comorbid illness, treatment may help alleviate the symptom.
In the absence of successful treatment, discomfort can be ameliorated by avoiding bright lights, keeping curtains drawn, and wearing an eye mask or dark glasses. When going outside, wearing dark glasses or other special glasses and hats can help.
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- Prize-winning Animation Released for Severe ME Day
- Shedding Light on Photophobia
- Wikipedia - Photophobia
References[edit | edit source]
- "photophobia". The Free Dictionary.
- Berne, Katrina (Dec 1, 1995), Running on Empty: The Complete Guide to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFIDS), 2nd ed., Hunter House, p. 59, ISBN 978-0897931915
- De Becker, Pascale; McGregor, Neil; De Meirleir, Kenny (December 2001). "A definition‐based analysis of symptoms in a large cohort of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Internal Medicine. 250 (3): 234–240. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.2001.00890.x.
- Hutchinson, Claire V; Maltby, John; Badham, Stephen P; Jason, Leonard (2013), "Vision-related symptoms as a clinical feature of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis? Evidence from the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire", The British journal of ophthalmology, 98 (1), doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-304439
- Carruthers, Bruce. "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Clinical Case Definition and Guidelines for Medical Practitioners - An Overview of the Canadian Consensus Document" (PDF). sacfs.asn.au.
- Carruthers, BM; van de Sande, MI; De Meirleir, KL; Klimas, NG; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, ACP; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, DS; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, DP; Light, AR; Marshall-Gradisnik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, JA; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, ML; Stevens, SR (Aug 22, 2011), "Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria", Journal of Internal Medicine, 270 (4): 327–338, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02428.x, PMID 21777306
- Holmes, Gary P.; Writing Committee (1988), "Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Working Case Definition", Annals of Internal Medicine, 108 (3): 387-389, PMID 2829679
- x, Char (Nov 2, 2017). "ME/CFS flares: what do they feel like and how to cope". Chronically Hopeful. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018.
- Taylor-Bearman, Jessica (Jul 1, 2017). A Girl Behind Dark Glasses. Hashtag Press. ISBN 9781999805357.
- Mastropasqua, Leonardo; Ciancaglini, Marco; Carpineto, Paolo; Iezzi, Antonella; Racciatti, Delia; Falconio, Gennaro; Zuppardi, Eduardo; Pizzigallo, Eligio (Sep 2000). "Ocular manifestations in chronic fatigue syndrome". Annals of Ophthalmology. 32 (3): 219–224. doi:10.1007/s12009-000-0059-5. ISSN 1530-4086.
- Verrillo, Erica (Sep 14, 2012), "Symptoms - Photophobia", Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Treatment Guide, 2nd Edition (Kindle eBook)
- Durlach, Jean; Morii, Hirotoshi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki (Mar 6, 2007), "10: Clinical forms of Magnesium Depletion by Photosensitization and Treatment with Scototherapy", New Perspectives in Magnesium Research, Springer London, pp. 117–126, doi:10.1007/978-1-84628-483-0_10, ISBN 978-1-84628-388-8
- Wakakura M, Tsubouchi T, Inouye J (March 2004), "Etizolam and benzodiazepine induced blepharospasm", J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr., 75 (3): 506–7, doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.019869, PMID 14966178
- Pelissolo A; Bisserbe JC (Mar–Apr 1994), "[Dependence on benzodiazepines. Clinical and biological aspects]", Encephale, 20 (2): 147–57, PMID 7914165
- Drummond PD (October 1986), "A quantitative assessment of photophobia in migraine and tension headache", Headache, 26 (9): 465–9, doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.1986.hed2609465.x, PMID 3781834
- "You searched for Photophobia - Total Eye Care". Total Eye Care. Retrieved Aug 16, 2018.
- pmhdev. "Mononucleosis - National Library of Medicine". PubMed Health. Retrieved Aug 7, 2018.
- Gauthier-Smith, P.C. (Dec 22, 2004), "Neurological complications of glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis)", Brain, Oxford University Press, 88 (2): 323–334, doi:10.1093/brain/88.2.323, PMID 5828906
- Light sensitivity — photophobia, Royal National Institute of Blind People
- "ScienceDirect". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved Oct 11, 2018.
- "Prize-winning Animation Released for Severe ME Day - Prohealth". Prohealth. Aug 11, 2018. Retrieved Aug 16, 2018.
- Digre, Kathleen B.; Brennan, K.C. (2012). "Shedding Light on Photophobia". Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society. 32 (1): 68–81. doi:10.1097/WNO.0b013e3182474548. ISSN 1070-8022. PMID 22330853.
Canadian consensus criteria (CCC) - A set of diagnostic criteria used to diagnose ME/CFS, developed by a group of practicing ME/CFS clinicians in 2003. The CCC is often considered to be the most complex criteria, but possibly the most accurate, with the lowest number of patients meeting the criteria. Led to the development of the International Consensus Criteria (ICC) in 2011.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.
Adverse reaction - Any unintended or unwanted response to the treatment under investigation in a clinical trial.
Oxford University - a prestigious university located in Oxford, England renowned for its teaching and research in health and medicine