Lyme disease

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Image of two deer ticks
Lyme disease is caught by bites from deer ticks.

Lyme Disease is caused by borrelia burgdorferi, a pathogen transmitted by the black legged tick.[1] It is treatable but can become chronic lyme disease. A bulls-eye rash can appear at the site of a deer tick bite but can be in different forms[2] while some people never recall having a rash; 30% of lyme patients never get a rash.[3]


 Symptoms[edit | edit source]

The signs and symptoms of lyme disease vary and usually appear in stages.[4]

Classic bulls-eye rash from the bite of a deer tick

Early Signs and Symptoms

  • Bull's eye rash (Rash can be in other forms and 30% of the time no rash is present.)[5][6]
  • Flu-like symptoms

Later Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms may also include

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diffuse rashes (rather than a single bull's-eye rash commonly associated with Lyme disease)[5]See: Images

Less Common Signs and Symptoms

  • Heart problems, such as irregular heartbeat.
  • Eye inflammation
  • Liver inflammation (hepatitis).
  • Severe fatigue[8]

Treatment[edit | edit source]

Patients treated with appropriate antibiotics in the early stages of Lyme disease usually recover rapidly and completely. Antibiotics commonly used for oral treatment include doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime axetil. Patients with certain neurological or cardiac forms of illness may require intravenous treatment with drugs such as ceftriaxone or penicillin.[9]

Notable research[edit | edit source]

Spirochete, or “corkscrew-shaped” bacteria known as Borrelia burgdorferi

Multiple pathogens[edit | edit source]

Pathobiome Paradigm[edit | edit source]

  • 2015, Some future research will focus on a spectrum of pathogens instead of a "one pathogen-one disease" vision.[15]

United States Congressional Report[edit | edit source]

Articles[edit | edit source]

 Blood and other laboratory tests[edit | edit source]

United States[edit | edit source]

United Kingdom[edit | edit source]

  • BBC1 Lyme Disease Discussion - Some patients have waited up to 30 years for a correct diagnosis. National Health Service (NHS) services have only correctly identified the disease in a quarter of the patients. The blood tests are unreliable and often come back negative. The development of an accurate blood test is in need of research funding.[23]

False positives[edit | edit source]

Several herpesviruses including varicella zoster virus[25][26], cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus,[27] and HSV-2[28] may cause false positives on Lyme Disease tests.

News media on unapproved tests[edit | edit source]

  • 2005, Unproved Lyme Disease Tests Prompt Warnings[29]
  • 2013, Many tests to diagnose Lyme, but no proof they work[30]
  • 2013, Lyme Culture Test Causes Uproar[31]
  • 2014, Federal Loopholes Compromise Lyme Disease Testing[32]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention". WebMD. Retrieved Aug 13, 2018. 
  2. "Does Everyone Get the Telltale Bullseye Rash? | Bay Area Lyme Foundation". Bay Area Lyme Foundation. Sep 12, 2014. Retrieved Aug 13, 2018. 
  3. "Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention". WebMD. Retrieved Sep 6, 2018. 
  4. "Lyme disease - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  5. 5.05.1 "Does Everyone Get the Telltale Bullseye Rash? | Bay Area Lyme Foundation". Bay Area Lyme Foundation. Sep 12, 2014. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  6. "Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention". WebMD. Retrieved Sep 6, 2018. 
  7. "Lyme Disease (Erythema-Migrans) Picture Image on MedicineNet.com". MedicineNet. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  8. "Lyme disease - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  9. "Treatment | Lyme Disease | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Dec 13, 2017. Retrieved Aug 13, 2018. 
  10. Wormser, Gary P.; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Halperin, John J.; Steere, Allen C.; Klempner, Mark S.; Krause, Peter J.; Bakken, Johan S.; Strle, Franc (Nov 1, 2006). "The Clinical Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Lyme Disease, Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 43 (9): 1089–1134. doi:10.1086/508667. ISSN 1537-6591. 
  11. "Quirky Lyme disease bacteria: Unlike most organisms, they don't need iron, but crave manganese". ScienceDaily. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Mar 21, 2013. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  12. "Ticks that transmit Lyme disease reported in nearly half of all US counties". ScienceDaily. Entomological Society of America. Jan 18, 2016. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  13. Kurtzman, Laura (Feb 12, 2016). "Gene Signature Could Lead To A New Way Of Diagnosing Lyme". UC San Francisco. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  14. "Researchers identify new Borrelia species that causes Lyme disease: Until now, Borrelia burgdorferi was only species believed to cause Lyme disease in North America". ScienceDaily. Feb 8, 2016. Retrieved Aug 13, 2018. 
  15. Vayssier-Taussat, M; Kazimirova, M; Hubalek, Z; Hornok, S; Farkas, R; Cosson, JF; Bonnet, S; Vourch, G; Gasqui, P; Mihalca, AD; Plantard, O; Silaghi, C; Cutler, S; Rizzlo, A (Nov 19, 2015), "Emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the 'one pathogen-one disease' vision to the pathobiome paradigm", Future Microbiol, 10 (12): 2033-43, doi:10.2217/fmb.15.114, PMID 26610021 
  16. Aucott, John N; Honey, Kristen T; Adams, Wendy; Beard, Charles Benjamin; Cooper, Captain Scott; Dixon, Dennis; Horowitz, Richard; Jones, Captain Estella; Nigrovic, Lisa E (2018). "Tick-Borne Disease Working Group - 2018 Report to Congress" (PDF). drive.google.com. Allen Richards; Robert Sabatino; Vanila Singh; Patricia Smith; Robert Smith. Retrieved Nov 26, 2018. 
  17. Ambrose, Melenie (Apr 22, 2014). "Lyme disease — a ticking timebomb". PerthNow. Retrieved Aug 13, 2018. 
  18. "How I was floored by a tick". BBC News. Jul 31, 2016. Retrieved Aug 13, 2018. 
  19. "Two-step Laboratory Testing Process| Lyme Disease | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  20. "Types of Lyme Disease Tests". lymediseaseguide.org. May 27, 2011. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  21. "Laboratory tests that are not recommended| Lyme Disease | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  22. Carino, Jerry (Nov 16, 2018). "Tests for Lyme disease don't work well enough to diagnose illness early, federal panel says". USA TODAY. Retrieved Nov 26, 2018. 
  23. Loukas, Demetrios (Feb 27, 2016). "BBC1 Lyme Disease 27.02.2016". YouTube. Katherine Allman. 
  24. Donaldson, Liam (2009). "Testing for Lyme Disease" (PDF). webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk (PDF). p. 4. 
  25. Feder, HM Jr; Gerber, MA; Luger, SW; Ryan, RW (Dec 1991), "False-positive serologic tests for Lyme disease after varicella infection", N Engl J Med, 325 (26): 1886-7, PMID 1961232 
  26. Woelfle, J; Wilske, B; Haverkamp, F; Bialek, R (Nov 1998), "False-positive serological tests for Lyme disease in facial palsy and varicella zoster meningo-encephalitis", Eur J Pediatr, 157 (1): 953-4, PMID 9835449 
  27. Goossens, HA; Nohlmans, MK; van den Bogaard, AE (May 1999), "Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections cause false-positive results in IgM two-test protocol for early Lyme borreliosis", Infection, 27 (3): 231, PMID 10378140 
  28. Strasfeld, L; Romanzi, L; Seder, RH; Berardi, VP (2005), "False-Positive Serological Test Results for Lyme Disease in a Patient with Acute Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2", Clin Infect Dis, 41 (12): 1826-1827, doi:10.1086/498319, PMID 16288417 
  29. Santora, Dan Hurley and Marc. "Unproved Lyme Disease Tests Prompt Warnings". Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  30. Daley, Beth (Oct 21, 2013). "Many tests to diagnose Lyme, but no proof they do - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  31. Lyme Culture Test Causes Uproar. "Medscape Log In" (Login Needed). www.medscape.com. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  32. Daley, Beth (Jun 17, 2014). "Federal Loopholes Compromise Lyme Disease Testing". WGBH 89.7. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  33. "Deer Tick | National Geographic". Apr 11, 2010. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  34. "Lyme Disease". Columbia-lyme.org. Retrieved Aug 13, 2018. 
  35. "Lyme Disease". blausen.com. Nov 17, 2015. Retrieved Aug 25, 2018. 
  36. Paules, Catharine I.; Marston, Hilary D.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Fauci, Anthony S. (Jul 25, 2018). "Tickborne Diseases — Confronting a Growing Threat | NEJM". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/nejmp1807870#.w4x9xybx_qg.twitter. 

Accuracy is the "closeness of an observation to the true clinical state" (Sackett et al., 1986).[1]

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.