Chronic Lyme disease

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Chronic Lyme disease is caused by a long-standing active Borrelia burgdorferi infection. There's an overwhelming amount of research, both in vitro and in vivo, that supports the fact that B. burgdorferi can persist in the human body, not only in the spirochetal but also in the antibiotic-resistant biofilm form, even after antibiotic treatment.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Despite this, parts of the medical community discard this disease in conflict with science.[2]

Spirochete, or “corkscrew-shaped” bacteria known as Borrelia burgdorferi

Symptoms[edit | edit source]

Treatment and management[edit | edit source]

Notable research[edit | edit source]

Multiple Pathogens[edit | edit source]

Pathobiome Paradigm[edit | edit source]

  • 2015, Some future research will focus on a spectrum of pathogens instead of a "one pathogen-one disease" vision.[21]

United States Congressional Report[edit | edit source]

Blood and other laboratory tests[edit | edit source]

United States[edit | edit source]

United Kingdom[edit | edit source]

  • BBC1 Lyme Disease Discussion - Some patients have waited up to 30 years for a correct diagnosis. National Health Service (NHS) services have only correctly identified the disease in a quarter of the patients. The blood tests are unreliable and often come back negative. The development of an accurate blood test is in need of research funding.[26]

False positives[edit | edit source]

Several herpesviruses including varicella zoster virus[28][29], cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus,[30] and HSV-2[31] may cause false positives on Lyme Disease tests.

News media on unapproved tests[edit | edit source]

Co-infections[edit | edit source]

Herpesviruses[edit | edit source]

Lyme may cause reactivation of latent herpesviruses. At the same time, several herpesviruses including varicella zoster virus,[28][29]cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus,[30] and HSV-2[31] may cause false positives on lyme disease tests.

Pathobiome paradigm[edit | edit source]

Some future research will focus on a spectrum of pathogens instead of a "one pathogen-one disease" vision.[36]

Lyme Disease vs Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Berndtson, Keith (Apr 23, 2013). "Review of evidence for immune evasion and persistent infection in Lyme disease". International Journal of General Medicine. doi:10.2147/ijgm.s44114. PMC 3636972Freely accessible. PMID 23637552. Retrieved Apr 28, 2020. 
  2. 2.02.1 Stricker, Raphael B.; Johnson, Lorraine (Apr 22, 2013). "Persistent infection in chronic lyme disease: does form matter?". Research Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1 (1): 2. doi:10.7243/2052-5958-1-2. ISSN 2052-5958. 
  3. Sapi, Eva; Bastian, Scott L.; Mpoy, Cedric M.; Scott, Shernea; Rattelle, Amy; Pabbati, Namrata; Poruri, Akhila; Burugu, Divya; Theophilus, Priyanka A. S. (Oct 24, 2012). "Characterization of Biofilm Formation by Borrelia burgdorferi In Vitro". PLOS ONE. 7 (10): e48277. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048277. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3480481Freely accessible. PMID 23110225. 
  4. Caskey, John R.; Hasenkampf, Nicole R.; Martin, Dale S.; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Cheslock, Mercedes A.; Embers, Monica E. (2019). "The Functional and Molecular Effects of Doxycycline Treatment on Borrelia burgdorferi Phenotype". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00690. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 6482230Freely accessible. PMID 31057493. 
  5. Lacout, Alexis; Hajjam, Mostafa El; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Perronne, Christian (Jul 1, 2018). "The Persistent Lyme Disease: "True Chronic Lyme Disease" rather than "Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome"". Journal of Global Infectious Diseases. 10 (3): 170. doi:10.4103/jgid.jgid_152_17. ISSN 0974-777X. PMC 6100330Freely accessible. PMID 30166820. 
  6. Middelveen, Marianne J.; Sapi, Eva; Burke, Jennie; Filush, Katherine R.; Franco, Agustin; Fesler, Melissa C.; Stricker, Raphael B. (Jun 2018). "Persistent Borrelia Infection in Patients with Ongoing Symptoms of Lyme Disease". Healthcare. 6 (2): 33. doi:10.3390/healthcare6020033. PMC 6023324Freely accessible. PMID 29662016. 
  7. Sharma, Bijaya; Brown, Autumn V.; Matluck, Nicole E.; Hu, Linden T.; Lewis, Kim (Aug 1, 2015). "Borrelia burgdorferi, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease, Forms Drug-Tolerant Persister Cells". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (8): 4616–4624. doi:10.1128/AAC.00864-15. ISSN 0066-4804. PMID 26014929. 
  8. Feng, Jie; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Zhang, Ying (Mar 25, 2015). "Drug Combinations against Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters In Vitro: Eradication Achieved by Using Daptomycin, Cefoperazone and Doxycycline". PLOS ONE. 10 (3): e0117207. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117207. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4373819Freely accessible. PMID 25806811. 
  9. Locke, Jonathan W. (Jun 2019). "Complement Evasion in Borrelia spirochetes: Mechanisms and Opportunities for Intervention". Antibiotics. 8 (2): 80. doi:10.3390/antibiotics8020080. PMC 6627623Freely accessible. PMID 31200570. 
  10. Wagemakers, A.; Visser, M. C.; de Wever, B.; Hovius, J. W.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Hendriks, E. J.; Peferoen, L.; Muller, F. F.; Ang, C. W. (Aug 2, 2018). "Case report: persistently seronegative neuroborreliosis in an immunocompromised patient". BMC Infectious Diseases. 18 (1): 362. doi:10.1186/s12879-018-3273-8. ISSN 1471-2334. PMC 6090844Freely accessible. PMID 30071836. 
  11. Rudenko, Natalie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Kybicova, Katerina; Vancova, Marie (May 16, 2019). "Metamorphoses of Lyme disease spirochetes: phenomenon of Borrelia persisters". Parasites & Vectors. 12 (1): 237. doi:10.1186/s13071-019-3495-7. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC 6521364Freely accessible. PMID 31097026. 
  12. Aslam, Bilal; Nisar, Muhammad Atif; Khurshid, Mohsin; Farooq Salamat, Muhammad Khalid (Sep 15, 2017). "Immune escape strategies of Borrelia burgdorferi". Future Microbiology. 12 (13): 1219–1237. doi:10.2217/fmb-2017-0013. ISSN 1746-0913. 
  13. Maloney, Elizabeth L. (Nov 2016). "Controversies in Persistent (Chronic) Lyme Disease". Journal of Infusion Nursing. 39 (6): 369–375. doi:10.1097/NAN.0000000000000195. ISSN 1533-1458. PMC 5102277Freely accessible. PMID 27755213. 
  14. Cabello, Felipe C.; Godfrey, Henry P.; Bugrysheva, Julia V.; Newman, Stuart A. (2017). "Sleeper cells: the stringent response and persistence in the Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi enzootic cycle". Environmental Microbiology. 19 (10): 3846–3862. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.13897. ISSN 1462-2920. PMC 5794220Freely accessible. PMID 28836724. 
  15. DeLong, Allison K.; Blossom, Barbara; Maloney, Elizabeth L.; Phillips, Steven E. (Nov 2012). "Antibiotic retreatment of Lyme disease in patients with persistent symptoms: A biostatistical review of randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials". Contemporary Clinical Trials. 33 (6): 1132–1142. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2012.08.009. ISSN 1551-7144. 
  16. Sapi, Eva; Kasliwala, Rumanah S.; Ismail, Hebo; Torres, Jason P.; Oldakowski, Michael; Markland, Sarah; Gaur, Gauri; Melillo, Anthony; Eisendle, Klaus (Dec 2019). "The Long-Term Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi Antigens and DNA in the Tissues of a Patient with Lyme Disease". Antibiotics. 8 (4): 183. doi:10.3390/antibiotics8040183. PMC 6963883Freely accessible. PMID 31614557. 
  17. "Quirky Lyme disease bacteria: Unlike most organisms, they don't need iron, but crave manganese". ScienceDaily. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Mar 21, 2013. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  18. "Ticks that transmit Lyme disease reported in nearly half of all US counties". ScienceDaily. Entomological Society of America. Jan 18, 2016. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  19. Kurtzman, Laura (Feb 12, 2016). "Gene Signature Could Lead To A New Way Of Diagnosing Lyme". UC San Francisco. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  20. "Researchers identify new Borrelia species that causes Lyme disease: Until now, Borrelia burgdorferi was only species believed to cause Lyme disease in North America". ScienceDaily. Feb 8, 2016. Retrieved Aug 13, 2018. 
  21. Vayssier-Taussat, M; Kazimirova, M; Hubalek, Z; Hornok, S; Farkas, R; Cosson, JF; Bonnet, S; Vourch, G; Gasqui, P; Mihalca, AD; Plantard, O; Silaghi, C; Cutler, S; Rizzlo, A (Nov 19, 2015), "Emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the 'one pathogen-one disease' vision to the pathobiome paradigm", Future Microbiol, 10 (12): 2033-43, doi:10.2217/fmb.15.114, PMID 26610021 
  22. Aucott, John N; Honey, Kristen T; Adams, Wendy; Beard, Charles Benjamin; Cooper, Captain Scott; Dixon, Dennis; Horowitz, Richard; Jones, Captain Estella; Nigrovic, Lisa E (2018). "Tick-Borne Disease Working Group - 2018 Report to Congress" (PDF). drive.google.com. Allen Richards; Robert Sabatino; Vanila Singh; Patricia Smith; Robert Smith. Retrieved Nov 26, 2018. 
  23. "Two-step Laboratory Testing Process| Lyme Disease | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  24. "Types of Lyme Disease Tests". lymediseaseguide.org. May 27, 2011. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  25. "Laboratory tests that are not recommended| Lyme Disease | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  26. Loukas, Demetrios (Feb 27, 2016). "BBC1 Lyme Disease 27.02.2016". YouTube. Katherine Allman. 
  27. 27.027.1 Donaldson, Liam (2009). "Testing for Lyme Disease" (PDF). webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk (PDF). p. 4. 
  28. 28.028.1 Feder, HM Jr; Gerber, MA; Luger, SW; Ryan, RW (Dec 1991), "False-positive serologic tests for Lyme disease after varicella infection", N Engl J Med, 325 (26): 1886-7, PMID 1961232 
  29. 29.029.1 Woelfle, J; Wilske, B; Haverkamp, F; Bialek, R (Nov 1998), "False-positive serological tests for Lyme disease in facial palsy and varicella zoster meningo-encephalitis", Eur J Pediatr, 157 (1): 953-4, PMID 9835449 
  30. 30.030.1 Goossens, HA; Nohlmans, MK; van den Bogaard, AE (May 1999), "Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections cause false-positive results in IgM two-test protocol for early Lyme borreliosis", Infection, 27 (3): 231, PMID 10378140 
  31. 31.031.1 Strasfeld, L; Romanzi, L; Seder, RH; Berardi, VP (2005), "False-Positive Serological Test Results for Lyme Disease in a Patient with Acute Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2", Clin Infect Dis, 41 (12): 1826-1827, doi:10.1086/498319, PMID 16288417 
  32. Santora, Dan Hurley and Marc. "Unproved Lyme Disease Tests Prompt Warnings". Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  33. Daley, Beth (Oct 21, 2013). "Many tests to diagnose Lyme, but no proof they do - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  34. Lyme Culture Test Causes Uproar. "Medscape Log In" (Login Needed). www.medscape.com. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  35. Daley, Beth (Jun 17, 2014). "Federal Loopholes Compromise Lyme Disease Testing". WGBH 89.7. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
  36. Vayssier-Taussat, M; Kazimirova, M; Hubalek, Z; Hornok, S; Farkas, R; Cosson, JF; Bonnet, S; Vourch, G; Gasqui, P; Mihalca, AD; Plantard, O; Silaghi, C; Cutler, S; Rizzlo, A (Nov 19, 2015), "Emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the 'one pathogen-one disease' vision to the pathobiome paradigm", Future Microbiol, 10 (12): 2033-43, doi:10.2217/fmb.15.114, PMID 26610021 
  37. Schutzer, SE; Angel, TE; Liu, T; Schepmoes, AA; Clauss, TR; Adkins, JN; Camp, DG; Holland, BK; Bergquist, J; Coyle, PK; Smith, RD; Fallon, BA; Natelson, BH (Feb 23, 2011), "Distinct Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomes Differentiate Post-Treatment Lyme Disease from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", PLoS One, 6 (2): e17287, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017287, PMID 21383843 
  38. Johnson, Cort (Aug 6, 2016). "Post Lyme Disease and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) - Are They The Same? - Simmaron Research". Simmaron Research. Retrieved Sep 3, 2018. 
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  42. Paules, Catharine I.; Marston, Hilary D.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Fauci, Anthony S. (Jul 25, 2018). "Tickborne Diseases — Confronting a Growing Threat | NEJM". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/nejmp1807870#.w4x74fva80g.twitter. 

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

myalgic encephalopathy - An alternate term that is sometimes used for myalgic encephalomyelitis, by people who believe the evidence for inflammation in ME is insufficient. This terminology reflects the belief that the "-itis" suffix implies inflammation.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.