Mononucleosis

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Mononucleosis, also known as infectious mononucleosis (IM), mono, or glandular fever is a contagious disease most common in teenagers and young adults. It is most commonly spread through bodily fluids, especially saliva.[1]

Causative agents[edit | edit source]

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM), making up approximately 90% of those diagnosed,[2] but other infectious agents, such as cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis gondii parasite, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), rubella virus, hepatitis A, B, or C viruses, and adenovirus can cause this disease.[1]

Although Epstein-Barr virus is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis, the majority of people infected with EBV never develop mononucleosis. It is estimated that 80% - 90% of the worldwide population is infected with EBV.[3]

Symptomology[edit | edit source]

Illness duration can vary from several weeks to several months and may include the following symptoms:[4][3]

Treatment[edit | edit source]

Treatment is mainly supportive: rest, plenty of fluids, analgesics, and antipyretics.[4] A vaccine for the prevention of Epstein-Barr virus is being explored.[5]

Trigger for chronic fatigue syndrome[edit | edit source]

A minority of infectious mononucleosis patients develop postviral fatigue syndrome and meet the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Research studies cite figures from 12% to 24% of healthy people who contract infectious mononucleosis will have the illness progress into chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).[2][6] In a 2013 study by Jason and Katz, thirteen percent of adolescents (mainly female) met the criteria for CFS 6 months following infectious mononucleosis; the figure was 7% at 12 months and 4% at 24 months. A year later, Jason and Katz looked at numerous medical, demographic, and psychological factors in an effort to find predictors of which infectious mononucleosis patients would develop chronic fatigue syndrome. They found the best predictor was the illness severity of the case of infectious mononucleosis.[7]

In 2019, Katz et al. found that severity of mononucleosis predicted risk of CFS six months post-infection.[8]

Studies relating to infectious mononucleosis and ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.01.1 "Epstein-barr | Mononucleosis | About Mono | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Jan 23, 2019. Retrieved Apr 7, 2019. 
  2. 2.02.12.2 Jason, Leonard A; Katz, Ben; Gleason, Kristen; McManimen, Stephanie; Sunnquist, Madison; Thorpe, Taylor (2017), "A Prospective Study of Infectious Mononucleosis in College Students" (PDF), International Journal of Psychiatry, 2 (1) 
  3. 3.03.1 "Epidemiology of Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, Epidemiology of EBV infection". virology-online.com. Retrieved Apr 8, 2019. 
  4. 4.04.1 "Epstein-barr | Mononucleosis | About Mono | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Jan 23, 2019. Retrieved Apr 8, 2019. 
  5. "NIH researchers make progress toward Epstein-Barr virus vaccine". National Institutes of Health (NIH). Apr 9, 2019. Retrieved Apr 10, 2019. 
  6. 6.06.1 Buchwald, Dedra S; Rea, Thomas; Katon, Wayne J; Russo, Joan E; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley (2000), "Acute infectious mononucleosis: Characteristics of patients who report failure to recover", The American Journal of Medicine, 109 (7): 531-7, doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00560-X 
  7. 7.07.1 Jason, Leonard A; Katz, Ben Z.; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J.; Im, Young; Taylor, Renee R. (2014), "Predictors of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents", Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 2 (1): 41-51, doi:10.1080/21642850.2013.869176 
  8. 8.08.1 Katz, Ben Z.; Reuter, Caroline; Lupovitch, Yair; Gleason, Kristen; McClellan, Damani; Cotler, Joseph; Jason, Leonard A. (Mar 7, 2019). "A Validated Scale for Assessing the Severity of Acute Infectious Mononucleosis". The Journal of Pediatrics. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.01.035. ISSN 1097-6833. PMID 30853204. 
  9. Hickie, Ian; Davenport, Tracey; Wakefield, Denis; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Cameron, Barbara; Vernon, Suzanne D; Reeves, William C; Lloyd, Andrew (Sep 16, 2006). "Post-infective and chronic fatigue syndromes precipitated by viral and non-viral pathogens: prospective cohort study". BMJ. 333 (7568): 575–. doi:10.1136/bmj.38933.585764.ae. PMC 1569956Freely accessible. PMID 16950834. 
  10. Cameron, Barbara; Galbraith, Sally; Zhang, Yun; Davenport, Tracey; Vollmer‐Conna, Ute; Wakefield, Denis; Hickie, Ian; Dunsmuir, William; Whistler, Toni (Jul 2007). "Gene Expression Correlates of Postinfective Fatigue Syndrome after Infectious Mononucleosis". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 196 (1): 56–66. doi:10.1086/518614. 
  11. Katz, Ben Z.; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J.; Binns, Helen J.; Taylor, Renee (Jul 2009). "Chronic fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis in adolescents". Pediatrics. 124 (1): 189–193. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-1879. ISSN 1098-4275. PMID 19564299. 
  12. Harvey, Jeanna M.; Broderick, Gordon; Bowie, Alanna; Barnes, Zachary M.; Katz, Ben Z.; O’Gorman, Maurice R. G.; Vernon, Suzanne D.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy G. (Apr 26, 2016). "Tracking post-infectious fatigue in clinic using routine Lab tests". BMC Pediatrics. 16. doi:10.1186/s12887-016-0596-8. ISSN 1471-2431. PMC 4847210Freely accessible. PMID 27118537. 

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A controversial term, invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, that generally refers to a collection of symptoms as “fatigue”. There have been multiple attempts to come up with a set of diagnostic criteria to define this term, but few of those diagnostic criteria are currently in use. Previous attempts to define this term include the Fukuda criteria and the Oxford criteria. Some view the term as a useful diagnostic category for people with long-term fatigue of unexplained origin. Others view the term as a derogatory term borne out of animus towards patients. Some view the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, while others view myalgic encephalomyelitis as a distinct disease.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A controversial term, invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, that generally refers to a collection of symptoms as “fatigue”. There have been multiple attempts to come up with a set of diagnostic criteria to define this term, but few of those diagnostic criteria are currently in use. Previous attempts to define this term include the Fukuda criteria and the Oxford criteria. Some view the term as a useful diagnostic category for people with long-term fatigue of unexplained origin. Others view the term as a derogatory term borne out of animus towards patients. Some view the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, while others view myalgic encephalomyelitis as a distinct disease.

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

National Institutes of Health (NIH) - A set of biomedical research institutes operated by the U.S. government, under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health (NIH) - A set of biomedical research institutes operated by the U.S. government, under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

BMJ - The BMJ (previously the British Medical Journal) is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
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