Mononucleosis, also known as infectious mononucleosis (IM), mono, or glandular fever is a contagious disease most common in teenagers and young adults. It is most commonly spread through bodily fluids, especially saliva.
Causative agents[edit | edit source]
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM), making up approximately 90% of those diagnosed, but other infectious agents, such as cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis gondii parasite, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), rubella virus, hepatitis A, B, or C viruses, and adenovirus can cause this disease.
Although Epstein-Barr virus is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis, the majority of people infected with EBV never develop mononucleosis. It is estimated that 80% - 90% of the worldwide population is infected with EBV.
Symptomology[edit | edit source]
- extreme fatigue and malaise
- fever, sweating and chills
- sore throat
- head and body aches
- swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
- swollen liver or spleen or both
- rash, usually resolving in several days
Treatment[edit | edit source]
Trigger for chronic fatigue syndrome[edit | edit source]
A minority of infectious mononucleosis patients develop postviral fatigue syndrome and meet the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Research studies cite figures from 12% to 24% of healthy people who contract infectious mononucleosis will have the illness progress into chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In a 2013 study by Jason and Katz, thirteen percent of adolescents (mainly female) met the criteria for CFS 6 months following infectious mononucleosis; the figure was 7% at 12 months and 4% at 24 months. A year later, Jason and Katz looked at numerous medical, demographic, and psychological factors in an effort to find predictors of which infectious mononucleosis patients would develop chronic fatigue syndrome. They found the best predictor was the illness severity of the case of infectious mononucleosis.
In 2019, Katz et al. found that severity of mononucleosis predicted risk of CFS six months post-infection.
Studies relating to infectious mononucleosis and ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
- 2000, Acute infectious mononucleosis: Characteristics of patients who report failure to recover
- 2006, Post-infective and chronic fatigue syndromes precipitated by viral and non-viral pathogens: Prospective cohort study
- 2007, Gene expression correlates of postinfective fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis
- 2009, Chronic fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis in adolescents.(Full Text)
- 2014, Predictors of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents
- 2016, Tracking post-infectious fatigue in clinic using routine Lab tests
- 2017, A Prospective Study of Infectious Mononucleosis in College Students
- 2019, A Validated Scale for Assessing the Severity of Acute Infectious Mononucleosis (Abstract)
References[edit | edit source]
- "Epstein-barr | Mononucleosis | About Mono | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Jan 23, 2019. Retrieved Apr 7, 2019.
- Jason, Leonard A; Katz, Ben; Gleason, Kristen; McManimen, Stephanie; Sunnquist, Madison; Thorpe, Taylor (2017), "A Prospective Study of Infectious Mononucleosis in College Students" (PDF), International Journal of Psychiatry, 2 (1)
- "Epidemiology of Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, Epidemiology of EBV infection". virology-online.com. Retrieved Apr 8, 2019.
- "Epstein-barr | Mononucleosis | About Mono | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Jan 23, 2019. Retrieved Apr 8, 2019.
- "NIH researchers make progress toward Epstein-Barr virus vaccine". National Institutes of Health (NIH). Apr 9, 2019. Retrieved Apr 10, 2019.
- Buchwald, Dedra S; Rea, Thomas; Katon, Wayne J; Russo, Joan E; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley (2000), "Acute infectious mononucleosis: Characteristics of patients who report failure to recover", The American Journal of Medicine, 109 (7): 531-7, doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00560-X
- Jason, Leonard A; Katz, Ben Z.; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J.; Im, Young; Taylor, Renee R. (2014), "Predictors of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents", Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 2 (1): 41-51, doi:10.1080/21642850.2013.869176
- Katz, Ben Z.; Reuter, Caroline; Lupovitch, Yair; Gleason, Kristen; McClellan, Damani; Cotler, Joseph; Jason, Leonard A. (Mar 7, 2019). "A Validated Scale for Assessing the Severity of Acute Infectious Mononucleosis". The Journal of Pediatrics. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.01.035. ISSN 1097-6833. PMID 30853204.
- Hickie, Ian; Davenport, Tracey; Wakefield, Denis; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Cameron, Barbara; Vernon, Suzanne D; Reeves, William C; Lloyd, Andrew (Sep 16, 2006). "Post-infective and chronic fatigue syndromes precipitated by viral and non-viral pathogens: prospective cohort study". BMJ. 333 (7568): 575–. doi:10.1136/bmj.38933.585764.ae. PMC . PMID 16950834.
- Cameron, Barbara; Galbraith, Sally; Zhang, Yun; Davenport, Tracey; Vollmer‐Conna, Ute; Wakefield, Denis; Hickie, Ian; Dunsmuir, William; Whistler, Toni (Jul 2007). "Gene Expression Correlates of Postinfective Fatigue Syndrome after Infectious Mononucleosis". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 196 (1): 56–66. doi:10.1086/518614.
- Katz, Ben Z.; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J.; Binns, Helen J.; Taylor, Renee (Jul 2009). "Chronic fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis in adolescents". Pediatrics. 124 (1): 189–193. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-1879. ISSN 1098-4275. PMID 19564299.
- Harvey, Jeanna M.; Broderick, Gordon; Bowie, Alanna; Barnes, Zachary M.; Katz, Ben Z.; O’Gorman, Maurice R. G.; Vernon, Suzanne D.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy G. (Apr 26, 2016). "Tracking post-infectious fatigue in clinic using routine Lab tests". BMC Pediatrics. 16. doi:10.1186/s12887-016-0596-8. ISSN 1471-2431. PMC . PMID 27118537.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome, often used when both illnesses are considered the same.