Myocarditis

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Microscopic image of myocarditis, viral and bacterial endocarditis

Myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy is an inflammation of the heart muscle.[1] Myocarditis can be caused by numerous toxic or infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungal infections, or by autoimmune disease or a chest infection.[2]

Coxsackievirus B3 has been found in 20-25% of patients with cardiomyopathy and myocarditis.[3][4][5][6] In mouse models, Ampligen was found to be protective of Coxsackie B3-induced myocarditis.[7]

More recently, myocarditis has been found in people who have recovered from COVID-19, including some people who were mildly ill or asymptomatic, including professional athletes.[8] Myocarditis treatment varies from monitoring to anti-inflammatories, antibiotics and more intensive treatments.[2] It is a significant cause of sudden cardiac death in professional athletes.[9] Expert consensus advice has been published for competitive athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19.[9]

Several studies of a mouse model of Coxsackie B3 myocarditis have found that exercise increases the virulence of the infection and results in poorer outcomes.[10][11][12][13][14]

Signs and symptoms[edit | edit source]

Common myocarditis symptoms include:

Many of these symptoms are also found in people with ME/CFS who do not have myocarditis.[15]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

  • Oct 26, 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 and the Athletic Heart. Emerging Perspectives on Pathology, Risks, and Return to Play[8] - (Full text)

News articles, letters and blogs[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Myocarditis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved Nov 5, 2020. 
  2. 2.02.12.2 British Heart Foundation. "Myocarditis". Retrieved Nov 8, 2020. 
  3. Tracy S, Chapman NM, McManus BM, Pallansch MA, Beck MA, et al. (1990) A molecular and serologic evaluation of enteroviral involvement in human myocarditis. J Mol Cell Cardiol 22: 403–414.
  4. Bowles NE, Richardson PJ, Olsen EG, Archard LC (1986) Detection of Coxsackie-B-virus-specific RNA sequences in myocardial biopsy samples from patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Lancet 1: 1120–1123.
  5. Martin AB, Webber S, Fricker FJ, Jaffe R, Demmler G, et al. (1994) Acute myocarditis. Rapid diagnosis by PCR in children. Circulation 90: 330–339.
  6. Jin O, Sole MJ, Butany JW, Chia WK, McLaughlin PR, et al. (1990) Detection of enterovirus RNA in myocardial biopsies from patients with myocarditis and cardiomyopathy using gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Circulation 82: 8–16.
  7. Padalko, E (Jan 2004). "The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 48: 267–74. 
  8. 8.08.1 Kim, Jonathan H.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Phelan, Dermot; Emery, Michael S.; Martinez, Mathew W.; Chung, Eugene H.; Thompson, Paul D.; Baggish, Aaron L. (Oct 26, 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 and the Athletic Heart". JAMA Cardiology. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.5890. ISSN 2380-6583. 
  9. 9.09.19.2 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamacardiology/fullarticle/2770645
  10. Cabinian AE, Kiel RJ, Smith F, Ho KL, Khatib R, Reyes MR. Modification of exercise-aggravated coxsackie virus B3 murine myocarditis by T-lymphocyte suppression in an inbred model. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1990; 115: 454– 62.
  11. Kiel RJ, Smith FE, Chason J, Khatib R, Reyes MD. Coxsackie B3 myocarditis in C3H/HeJ mice: Description of an inbred model and the effect of exercise on the virulence. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 1989; 5: 248– 67.
  12. Ilbäck, NG (Jun 1989). "Exercise in coxsackie B3 myocarditis: Effects on heart lymphocyte subpopulations and the inflammatory reaction". American Heart Journal. 117: 1298–302. 
  13. Gatmaitan, Bienvenido (Jun 1, 1970). "Augmentation of the Virulence of Murine Coxsackie Virus B-3 Myocardiopathy by Exercise". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 131: 1121. 
  14. Reyes, MP (Feb 1976). "Interferon and neutralizing antibody in sera of exercised mice with coxsackievirus B-3 myocarditis". Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 151: 333–8. 
  15. Carruthers, BM; van de Sande, MI; De Meirleir, KL; Klimas, NG; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, ACP; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Bell, DS; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Gerken, A; Jo, D; Lewis, DP; Light, AR; Light, KC; Marshall-Gradisnik, S; McLaren-Howard, J; Mena, I; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Stevens, SR (2012), Myalgic encephalomyelitis: Adult & Paediatric: International Consensus Primer for Medical Practitioners (PDF), ISBN 978-0-9739335-3-6 

myocarditis - inflammation of the heart muscle

mouse model - The use of special strains of mice to study a human disease or condition, and how to prevent and treat it

mouse model - The use of special strains of mice to study a human disease or condition, and how to prevent and treat it

enterovirus - A genus of RNA viruses which typically enter the body through the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems and sometimes spread to the central nervous system or other parts of the body, causing neurological, cardiac, and other damage. Since the first reports of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), enteroviruses have been suspected as a cause of ME. Enteroviruses have also been implicated as the cause of Type I diabetes, congestive heart failure, and other conditions. Enteroviruses include poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, and many others. New enteroviruses and new strains of existing enteroviruses are continuously being discovered. (Learn more: viralzone.expasy.org)

enterovirus - A genus of RNA viruses which typically enter the body through the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems and sometimes spread to the central nervous system or other parts of the body, causing neurological, cardiac, and other damage. Since the first reports of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), enteroviruses have been suspected as a cause of ME. Enteroviruses have also been implicated as the cause of Type I diabetes, congestive heart failure, and other conditions. Enteroviruses include poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, and many others. New enteroviruses and new strains of existing enteroviruses are continuously being discovered. (Learn more: viralzone.expasy.org)

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.