Epidemiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome
Epidemiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome:
Statistics on the prevalence of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome vary. The CDC estimates that one million people in the US have ME/CFS and as many as 17-24 million people worldwide have ME/CFS. A recent UK biobank study places that estimate at 30 million. In 2015, the Institute of Medicine Report estimated there were between 836,000 and 2.5 million ME/CFS patients in the United States. 90% of patients are not diagnosed.
ME/CFS is more prevalent in women than men, can affect children or adults but is most common in adults between the ages of 30 to 50 years old, or ages 40-60 in the United States. In 72% of causes reported by ME/CFS patients, the onset follows an acute infection, for example a virus or bacterial infection.
- 1 Incidence and Prevalence
- 2 Sex
- 3 Age
- 4 Race and ethnicity
- 5 Socioeconomic characteristics
- 6 Severity
- 7 Risk factors
- 8 Prognosis
- 9 Mortality
- 10 See also
- 11 Learn more
- 12 References
Incidence and Prevalence[edit | edit source]
Estimated incidence rates – generally, the number of new cases in a single year – vary from 0.025% to 0.3% of the population.
Incidence and prevalence by country[edit | edit source]
|Country||Incidence||Prevalence rate||Total number|
|Australia||242,000 people have CFS (of which 94,000 meet a narrower definition for ME).|
|United States||836,000 to 2.5 million|
Incidence and prevalence by definition[edit | edit source]
|Method||12-month incidence||Prevalence rate|
|Postviral fatigue syndrome (ICD-10-CM G93.3 in a national health registry in Norway)||0.025% (NO)||–|
|Fukuda Criteria (CDC-1994 definition)||0.19% (UK), 0.24% (US. Kansas), 0.42% (US, Chicago),|
|Canadian Consensus Criteria (CCC)||0.11% (UK)|
|Empirical definition (Reeves criteria)||2,54%|
|Epidemiological Case Definition (ECD)||0.015% (UK)||0.03% (UK)|
|Diagnoses reported by general practitioners and pediatricians in the Netherlands (criteria unspecified)||0.012% (NL, 10-18 year olds)||0.11% (NL, 10-18 year olds)|
Sex[edit | edit source]
A higher preponderance of women has also been noted in numerous outbreaks including Los Angeles, Akureyri, Rockville, MD, Royal Free Hospital, and Punta Gorda, Florida. In some cases, this was thought to do with the occupational hazard of nursing, but this female-skewed sex ratio was also found in several outbreaks among the general population. However, in other outbreaks, including the 1949-1953 Adelaide outbreak and an outbreak in northern England in 1955, a 1:1 gender ratio was reported. In Akureyri, a significantly higher incidence rate was found among adult women but not in patients under twenty.
Age[edit | edit source]
New cases of ME/CFS have been in children as young as eight and adults in their eighties. In terms of incidence, a study in Norway found two age peaks, one between 10 and 19 years and a second peak between 30 and 39 years. In terms of prevalence, Jason found that individuals in the 40- to 49-year-old age range exhibited the highest prevalence rates of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
Race and ethnicity[edit | edit source]
In 1999, a community-based study by Dr Leonard Jason, et al, performed in the Chicago area found that individuals who identified as people of color exhibited higher rates of CFS than whites, with Latino participants demonstrating the highest CFS prevalence.
Socioeconomic characteristics[edit | edit source]
The prevalence of CFS was highest among skilled workers and lowest among professionals.
Severity[edit | edit source]
People with ME/CFS are more disabled and socially marginalized than for most other chronic illnesses.
Around 25 per cent of people with ME/CFS will have a mild form and be able to get to school or work either part-time or full-time, while reducing other activities. About 50 per cent will have a moderate to severe form of ME/CFS and not be able to get to school or work. Another 25 per cent will experience severe ME/CFS and have to stay at home or in bed.
Risk factors [edit | edit source]
Genetics[edit | edit source]
5% of children of mothers with ME/CFS later developed the illness.
Infection[edit | edit source]
Physical or emotional trauma[edit | edit source]
Environmental factors[edit | edit source]
Prognosis[edit | edit source]
The prognosis for ME/CFS is considered to be poor with only a minority (a median estimate of 5%) returning to pre-morbid levels of functioning. The majority of patients remains significantly impaired. A substantial improvement however is noted in an estimated 40% of patients and the prognosis in adolescents is considered to be better than in adults.
Mortality[edit | edit source]
One study found no increased risk of all cause mortality or mortality from cancer but an increased risk of suicide. Suicide risk was increased 6.85 compared to the general population. It was based on a cohort that used multiple clinical criteria, including the Oxford criteria. A Spanish study found a suicide risk of 12.75% versus 2.3% in the general population.
A 2006 study by Leonard Jason found that ME/CFS patients died of cancer, heart failure and suicide at considerable younger age than the general population. For example while the median age of death for cancer in the US was 72, the average age at which ME/CFS patients died of cancer was 47. And while the average age of heart failure in the general population was 83, it was only 58 in the ME/CFS sample.
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "How Many People Have ME/CFS? – American ME and CFS Society". Retrieved Jan 31, 2019.
- McGrath, Simon (Jun 11, 2018). "Analysis of data from 500,000 individuals in UK Biobank demonstrates an inherited component to ME/CFS". ME/CFS Research Review. Retrieved Feb 23, 2019.
- "Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - Redefining and Illness - Report Brief" (PDF). nataionalacademies.org. 2015.
- "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Key Facts" (PDF). nationalacademies.org. National Academies of Medicine. 2015.
- "What is ME/CFS? | Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Jan 18, 2019. Retrieved Jan 31, 2019.
- Raising Awareness for ME/CFS - Jan. 2011
- ME/CFS Documentary - About ME/CFS
- Read "Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an Illness" at NAP.edu. National Academies of Medicine. 2015. p. 32.
- The 25% M.E. Group Website Support Group for Severe M.E. Sufferers
- Carruthers, BM; van de Sande, MI; De Meirleir, KL; Klimas, NG; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, ACP; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Bell, DS; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Gerken, A; Jo, D; Lewis, DP; Light, AR; Light, KC; Marshall-Gradisnik, S; McLaren-Howard, J; Mena, I; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Stevens, SR (2012), Myalgic encephalomyelitis: Adult & Paediatric: International Consensus Primer for Medical Practitioners (PDF), ISBN 978-0-9739335-3-6
- "Epidemiology | Presentation and Clinical Course | Healthcare Providers | Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Nov 8, 2018. Retrieved Jan 23, 2019.
- "CDC Public Health Grand Rounds - Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - Advancing Research and Clinical Education" (PDF). cdc.gov. p. 6.
- Nacul, LC (July 2011). "Prevalence of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) in three regions of England: a repeated cross-sectional study in primary care". BMC Medicine. 9: 91.
- Reyes, Michele (Jul 14, 2003). "Prevalence and Incidence of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Wichita, Kansas". JAMA Internal Medicine. 163: 1530–1536.
- Jason, LA; Richman, JA; Rademaker, AW; Jordan, KM; Plioplys, AV; Taylor, RR; McCready, W; Huang, C; Plioplys, S (1999), "A Community-Based Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", Arch Intern Med, 159 (18): 2129-2137, doi:10.1001/archinte.159.18.2129
- "Analysis of data from 500,000 individuals in UK Biobank demonstrates an inherited component to ME/CFS". ME/CFS Research Review. Jun 11, 2018. Retrieved Aug 11, 2018.
- Johnston, Samantha; Brenu, Ekua W.; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya (2013). "The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis: a meta-analysis". Clinical Epidemiology. 5: 105–110. doi:10.2147/CLEP.S39876. ISSN 1179-1349. PMC . PMID 23576883.
- Bakken, Inger Johanne; Tveito, Kari; Gunnes, Nina; Ghaderi, Sara; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Trogstad, Lill; Håberg, Siri Eldevik; Magnus, Per (Oct 1, 2014). "Two age peaks in the incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a population-based registry study from Norway 2008-2012". BMC medicine. 12: 167. doi:10.1186/s12916-014-0167-5. ISSN 1741-7015. PMC . PMID 25274261.
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- Working Group on CFS/ME, Department of Health (Jan 11, 2003). "Annex 1: Epidemiology of CFS/ME".
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- Reeves, William C.; Jones, James F.; Maloney, Elizabeth; Heim, Christine; Hoaglin, David C.; Boneva, Roumiana S.; Morrissey, Marjorie; Devlin, Rebecca (Jun 8, 2007). "Prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome in metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia". Population Health Metrics. 5: 5. doi:10.1186/1478-7954-5-5. ISSN 1478-7954. PMC . PMID 17559660.
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Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome