Carmen Scheibenbogen

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Professor Doctor Carmen Scheibenbogen is an Internal Medicine physician, ME/CFS doctor and the Professor for Immunology and Deputy Chair, Institute of Medical Immunology, at the University Hospital Charité in Berlin, Germany. Her research focuses on the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), particularly the characterization of EBV specific B cell and T cell response and the enhanced antibody response against EBV peptides in myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) versus healthy controls.[1]

Wirth-Scheibenbogen unifying hypothesis of ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Between 2020 and 2021, with Prof. Dr Klaus Wirth, Prof. Scheibenbogen published a set of articles describing a detailed hypothesis of the pathophysiology of ME/CFS.[2][3][4]

EUROMENE[edit | edit source]

Professor Scheibenbogen is the Leader of the Biomarkers Working Group of EUROMENE, a European Union, COST Action CA15111, not-for-profit research organization committed to tackling the cause and treatment for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.[5]

Diagnostic test[edit | edit source]

Professor Scheibenbogen helped create the CellTrend Diagnostic Test which may help identify a subset of 20-30% of all patients with ME/CFS. These patients have elevated levels of three auto-antibodies, i.e., against the b2-adrenergic receptor, against the muscarinic cholinergic receptor 3 (M3) and against the muscarinic cholinergic receptor 4 (M4).[6]

Awards[edit | edit source]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

  • 2014, Deficient EBV-Specific B- and T-Cell Response in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[9] -(Full Text)
  • 2015, Frequent IgG subclass and mannose binding lectin deficiency in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome[10] -

(Full Text)

  • 2015, Polymorphism in COMT is associated with IgG3 subclass level and susceptibility to infection in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome[11] - (Full Text)
  • 2016, Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[12] - (Full Text)
  • 2017, Serological profiling of the EBV immune response in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome using a peptide microarray[13] - (Full Text)
  • 2017, The European ME/CFS Biomarker Landscape project: an initiative of the European network EUROMENE[14] - (Full Text)
  • 2018, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – Evidence for an autoimmune disease[15] - (Full Text)
  • 2018, Immunoadsorption to remove ß2 adrenergic receptor antibodies in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS/ME[16] - (Full Text)
  • 2018, The expression signature of very long non-coding RNA in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome[17] - (Full Text)
  • 2018, Prevalence and incidence of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome in Europe—the Euro-epiME study from the European network EUROMENE: a protocol for a systematic review[18] - (Full text)
  • 2018, Chronic viral infections in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)[19] - (Full text)
  • 2020, IgG stimulated β2 adrenergic receptor activation is attenuated in patients with ME/CFS[20] - (Full text)
  • 2020, Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation, Mitochondrial Fragmentation, and the Coordination of Antiviral and Metabolic Phenotypes in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[21] - (Full text)
  • 2020, Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Burden of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Across Europe: Current Evidence and EUROMENE Research Recommendations for Epidemiology[22] - (Full text)
  • 2020, Peripheral endothelial dysfunction in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome[23] - (Full text)
  • 2020, Autoimmunity-Related Risk Variants in PTPN22 and CTLA4 Are Associated With ME/CFS With Infectious Onset[24] - (Full text)
  • 2020, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Efficacy of Repeat Immunoadsorption[25] - (Full text)
  • 2020, A Unifying Hypothesis of the Pathophysiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): Recognitions from the finding of autoantibodies against ß2-adrenergic receptors[2] - (Full text)
  • 2020, Autoantibodies to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) patients - A validation study in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from two Swedish cohorts[26](Full text)
  • 2021, Pathophysiology of skeletal muscle disturbances in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)[3] - (Full text)
  • 2021, The SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: analysis of high-throughput epigenetic and gene expression studies[27] - (Full text)
  • 2021, European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE): Expert Consensus on the Diagnosis, Service Provision, and Care of People with ME/CFS in Europe[28] - (Full text)
  • 2021, Autoantibodies to Vasoregulative G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Correlate with Symptom Severity, Autonomic Dysfunction and Disability in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[29] - (Full text)
  • 2021, Tolerability and Efficacy of s.c. IgG Self-Treatment in ME/CFS Patients with IgG/IgG Subclass Deficiency: A Proof-of-Concept Study[30] - (Full text)
  • 2021, Medical Care Situation of People with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Germany[31] - (Full text)
  • 2021, An attempt to explain the neurological symptoms of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[4] - (Full text)
  • 2021, S1 Guideline Post-COVID/Long-COVID[32] - (Full text, in German)
  • 2021, Causal attributions and perceived stigma for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome[33] - (Full text)
  • 2021, Herpesviruses Serology Distinguishes Different Subgroups of Patients From the United Kingdom Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Biobank[34] - (Full text)
  • 2021, Hand grip strength and fatigability: correlation with clinical parameters and diagnostic suitability in ME/CFS[35] - (Full text)
  • 2021, Delineating the Association Between Soluble CD26 and Autoantibodies Against G-Protein Coupled Receptors, Immunological and Cardiovascular Parameters Identifies Distinct Patterns in Post-Infectious vs. Non-Infection-Triggered Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[36] - (Full text)

Clinic location[edit | edit source]

  • Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany

Talks and interviews[edit | edit source]

Online presence[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Invest in ME Research - International ME Conferences and Colloquiums Home Page". investinme.org. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  2. 2.02.1 Wirth, Klaus; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (June 1, 2020). "A Unifying Hypothesis of the Pathophysiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): Recognitions from the finding of autoantibodies against ß2-adrenergic receptors". Autoimmunity Reviews. 19 (6): 102527. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102527. ISSN 1568-9972.
  3. 3.03.1 Wirth, Klaus J.; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (April 21, 2021). "Pathophysiology of skeletal muscle disturbances in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)". Journal of Translational Medicine. 19 (1): 162. doi:10.1186/s12967-021-02833-2. ISSN 1479-5876. PMC 8058748. PMID 33882940.
  4. 4.04.1 Wirth, Klaus J.; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Paul, Friedemann (November 22, 2021). "An attempt to explain the neurological symptoms of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Journal of Translational Medicine. 19 (1): 471. doi:10.1186/s12967-021-03143-3. ISSN 1479-5876. PMC 8607226. PMID 34809664.
  5. "Action CA15111". COST. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  6. "POTS - CFS/ME - CRPS". CellTrend Luckenwalde. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  7. "2016 Ramsay Award Program Results". Solve ME/CFS Initiative. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  8. "2017 Ramsay Award Program Results". Solve ME/CFS Initiative. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  9. Loebel, Madlen; Strohschein, Kristin; Giannini, Carolin; Koelsch, Uwe; Bauer, Sandra; Doebis, Cornelia; Thomas, Sybill; Unterwalder, Nadine; von Baehr, Volker; Reinke, Petra; Knops, Michael; Hanitsch, Leif G.; Meisel, Christian; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (January 15, 2014). "Deficient EBV-Specific B- and T-Cell Response in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". PLoS One. 9 (1): e85387. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085387.
  10. Guenther, Sabrina; Loebel, Madlen; Mooslechner, Agnes A; Knops, Michael; Hanitsch, Leif G; Grabowski, Patricia; Wittke, Kirsten; Meisel, Christian; Unterwalder, Nadine; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (2015). "Frequent IgG subclass and mannose binding lectin deficiency in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Human Immunology. 76 (10): 729-35. doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2015.09.028.
  11. Loebel, Madlen; Mooslechner, Agnes Anna; Bauer, Sandra; Günther, Sabrina; Letsch, Anne; Hanitsch, Leif G; Grabowski, Patricia; Meisel, Christian; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (2015). "Polymorphism in COMT is associated with IgG3 subclass level and susceptibility to infection in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Translational Medicine. 13: 264. doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0628-4. PMC 4536662. PMID 26272340.
  12. Loebel, M; Grabowski, P; Heidecke, H; Bauer, S; Hanitsch, LG; Wittke, K; Meisel, C; Reinke, P; Volk, H; Fluge, Ø; Mella, O; Scheibenbogen, C (2016). "Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Brain, behavior, and immunity. 52: 32-39. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.09.013. PMID 26399744.
  13. Loebel, Madlen; Eckey, Maren; Sotzny, Franziska; Hahn, Elisabeth; Bauer, Sandra; Grabowski, Patricia; Zerweck, Johannes; Holenya, Pavlo; Hanitsch, Leif G.; Wittke, Kirsten; Borchmann, Peter; Rüffer, Jens-Ulrich; Hiepe, Falk; Ruprecht, Klemens; Behrends, Uta; Meindl, Carola; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Reimer, Ulf; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (2017). "Serological profiling of the EBV immune response in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome using a peptide microarray". PLOS ONE. 12 (6): e0179124. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0179124.
  14. Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Freitag, Helma; Blanco, Julià; Capelli, Enrica; Lacerda, Eliana; Authier, Jerome; Meeus, Mira; Castro Marrero, Jesus; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Oltra, Elisa; Strand, Elin Bolle; Shikova, Evelina; Sekulic, Slobodan; Murovska, Modra (July 26, 2017). "The European ME/CFS Biomarker Landscape project: an initiative of the European network EUROMENE". Journal of Translational Medicine. 15 (1). doi:10.1186/s12967-017-1263-z. ISSN 1479-5876. PMC 5530475. PMID 28747192.
  15. Sotzny, Franziska; Blanco, Julià; Capelli, Enrica; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Steiner, Sophie; Murovska, Modra; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (2018). "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – Evidence for an autoimmune disease". Autoimmunity Reviews. 17 (6): 601-609. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2018.01.009. PMID 29635081.
  16. Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Loebel, Madlen; Freitag, Helma; Krueger, Anne; Bauer, Sandra; Antelmann, Michaela; Doehner, Wolfram; Scherbakov, Nadja; Heidecke, Harald; Reinke, Petra; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Grabowski, Patricia (2018). "Immunoadsorption to remove ß2 adrenergic receptor antibodies in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS/ME". PLoS ONE. 13 (3): e0193672. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193672.
  17. Yang, Chin-An; Bauer, Sandra; Ho, Yu-Chen; Sotzny, Franziska; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (August 17, 2018). "The expression signature of very long non-coding RNA in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Translational Medicine. 16: 231. doi:10.1186/s12967-018-1600-x. ISSN 1479-5876.
  18. Estévez-López, Fernando; Castro-Marrero, Jesus; Wang, Xia; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Ivanovs, Andrejs; Nacul, Luis; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Strand, Elin B.; Pheby, Derek; Alegre, José; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Shikova, Evelina; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Capelli, Enrica; Sekulic, Slobodan; Lacerda, Eliana; Murovska, Modra (September 1, 2018). "Prevalence and incidence of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome in Europe—the Euro-epiME study from the European network EUROMENE: a protocol for a systematic review". BMJ Open. 8 (9): e020817. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020817. ISSN 2044-6055. PMID 30181183.
  19. Rasa, Santa; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Henning, Nina; Eliassen, Eva; Shikova, Evelina; Harrer, Thomas; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Murovska, Modra; Prusty, Bhupesh K.; European Network on ME/CFS (EUROMENE) (October 1, 2018). "Chronic viral infections in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)". Journal of Translational Medicine. 16 (1). doi:10.1186/s12967-018-1644-y. ISSN 1479-5876. PMID 30285773.
  20. Hartwig, Jelka; Sotzny, Franziska; Bauer, Sandra; Heidecke, Harald; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Dragun, Duska; Meisel, Christian; Dames, Claudia; Grabowski, Patricia; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (March 1, 2020). "IgG stimulated β2 adrenergic receptor activation is attenuated in patients with ME/CFS". Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health. 3: 100047. doi:10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100047. ISSN 2666-3546.
  21. Schreiner, Philipp; Harrer, Thomas; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Lamer, Stephanie; Schlosser, Andreas; Naviaux, Robert K.; Prusty, Bhupesh K. (April 1, 2020). "Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation, Mitochondrial Fragmentation, and the Coordination of Antiviral and Metabolic Phenotypes in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". ImmunoHorizons. 4 (4): 201–215. doi:10.4049/immunohorizons.2000006. ISSN 2573-7732. PMID 32327453.
  22. Estévez-López, Fernando; Mudie, Kathleen; Wang-Steverding, Xia; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Ivanovs, Andrejs; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Nacul, Luis; Alegre, Jose; Zalewski, Paweł; Słomko, Joanna; Bolle Strand, Elin; Pheby, Derek; Shikova, Evelina; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Capelli, Enrica; Sekulic, Slobodan; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Murovska, Modra; Lacerda, Eliana (May 2020). (EUROMENE). "Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Burden of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Across Europe: Current Evidence and EUROMENE Research Recommendations for Epidemiology". Journal of Clinical Medicine. 9 (5): 1557. doi:10.3390/jcm9051557.
  23. Scherbakov, Nadja; Szklarski, Marvin; Hartwig, Jelka; Sotzny, Franziska; Lorenz, Sebastian; Meyer, Antje; Grabowski, Patricia; Doehner, Wolfram; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (2020). "Peripheral endothelial dysfunction in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome". ESC Heart Failure. 7 (3): 1064–1071. doi:10.1002/ehf2.12633. ISSN 2055-5822. PMC 7261521. PMID 32154656.
  24. Steiner, Sophie; Becker, Sonya C.; Hartwig, Jelka; Sotzny, Franziska; Lorenz, Sebastian; Bauer, Sandra; Löbel, Madlen; Stittrich, Anna B.; Grabowski, Patricia; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (2020). "Autoimmunity-Related Risk Variants in PTPN22 and CTLA4 Are Associated With ME/CFS With Infectious Onset". Frontiers in Immunology. 11: 578. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.00578. ISSN 1664-3224.
  25. Tölle, Markus; Freitag, Helma; Antelmann, Michaela; Hartwig, Jelka; Schuchardt, Mirjam; van der Giet, Markus; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Grabowski, Patricia; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (July 30, 2020). "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Efficacy of Repeat Immunoadsorption". Journal of Clinical Medicine. 9 (8): 2443. doi:10.3390/jcm9082443. ISSN 2077-0383. PMC 7465279. PMID 32751659.
  26. Bynke, Annie; Julin, Per; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Heidecke, Harald; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Bergquist, Jonas (August 2020). "Autoantibodies to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) patients - A validation study in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from two Swedish cohorts". Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health. 7: 100107. doi:10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100107. ISSN 2666-3546. PMC 8474431. PMID 34589868.
  27. Malato, João; Sotzny, Franziska; Bauer, Sandra; Freitag, Helma; Fonseca, André; Grabowska, Anna D; Graça, Luís; Cordeiro, Clara; Nacul, Luís; Lacerda, Eliana M; Castro-Marrero, Jesus; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Westermeier, Francisco; Sepúlveda, Nuno (March 24, 2021). "The SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: analysis of high-throughput epigenetic and gene expression studies". medRxiv. doi:10.1101/2021.03.23.21254175. PMID 33791744.
  28. Nacul, Luis; Authier, François Jérôme; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Helland, Ingrid Bergliot; Martin, Jose Alegre; Sirbu, Carmen Adella; Mengshoel, Anne Marit; Polo, Olli; Behrends, Uta; Nielsen, Henrik; Grabowski, Patricia; Sekulic, Slobodan; Sepulveda, Nuno; Estévez-López, Fernando; Zalewski, Pawel; Pheby, Derek F. H.; Castro-Marrero, Jesus; Sakkas, Giorgos K.; Capelli, Enrica; Brundsdlund, Ivan; Cullinan, John; Krumina, Angelika; Bergquist, Jonas; Murovska, Modra; Vermuelen, Ruud C. W.; Lacerda, Eliana M. (May 2021). (EUROMENE). "European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE): Expert Consensus on the Diagnosis, Service Provision, and Care of People with ME/CFS in Europe". Medicina. 57 (5): 510. doi:10.3390/medicina57050510. PMC 8161074. PMID 34069603.
  29. Freitag, Helma; Szklarski, Marvin; Lorenz, Sebastian; Sotzny, Franziska; Bauer, Sandra; Philippe, Aurélie; Kedor, Claudia; Grabowski, Patricia; Lange, Tanja; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Heidecke, Harald; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (January 2021). "Autoantibodies to Vasoregulative G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Correlate with Symptom Severity, Autonomic Dysfunction and Disability in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Journal of Clinical Medicine. 10 (16): 3675. doi:10.3390/jcm10163675.
  30. Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Sotzny, Franziska; Hartwig, Jelka; Bauer, Sandra; Freitag, Helma; Wittke, Kirsten; Doehner, Wolfram; Scherbakov, Nadja; Loebel, Madlen; Grabowski, Patricia Grabowski (January 2021). "Tolerability and Efficacy of s.c. IgG Self-Treatment in ME/CFS Patients with IgG/IgG Subclass Deficiency: A Proof-of-Concept Study". Journal of Clinical Medicine. 10 (11): 2420. doi:10.3390/jcm10112420. PMC 8198960. PMID 34072494.
  31. Froehlich, Laura; Hattesohl, Daniel B. R.; Jason, Leonard A.; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Behrends, Uta; Thoma, Manuel (July 2021). "Medical Care Situation of People with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Germany". Medicina. 57 (7): 646. doi:10.3390/medicina57070646. PMC 8306083. PMID 34201825.
  32. Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Ankermann, Tobias; Behrends, Uta; Berlit, Peter; Böing, Sebastian; Brinkmann, Folke; Franke, Christian; Glöckl, Rainer; Gogoll, Christian; Hummel, Thomas; Kronsbein, Juliane; Maibaum, Thomas; Peters, Eva M. J.; Pfeifer, Michael; Platz, Thomas; Pletz, Matthias; Pongratz, Georg; Powitz, Frank; Rabe, Klaus F.; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Stallmach, Andreas; Stegbauer, Michael; Wagner, Hans Otto; Waller, Christiane; Wirtz, Hubert; Zeiher, Andreas; Zwick, Ralf Harun (November 2021). "S1-Leitlinie Post-COVID/Long-COVID" [S1 Guideline Post-COVID/Long-COVID]. Pneumologie (in Deutsch). 75 (11): 869–900. doi:10.1055/a-1551-9734. ISSN 0934-8387.
  33. Froehlich, Laura; Hattesohl, Daniel Br; Cotler, Joseph; Jason, Leonard A.; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Behrends, Uta (July 9, 2021). "Causal attributions and perceived stigma for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Health Psychology: 13591053211027631. doi:10.1177/13591053211027631. ISSN 1461-7277. PMID 34240650.
  34. Domingues, Tiago Dias; Grabowska, Anna D.; Lee, Ji-Sook; Ameijeiras-Alonso, Jose; Westermeier, Francisco; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Cliff, Jacqueline M.; Nacul, Luis; Lacerda, Eliana M.; Mouriño, Helena; Sepúlveda, Nuno (2021). "Herpesviruses Serology Distinguishes Different Subgroups of Patients From the United Kingdom Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Biobank". Frontiers in Medicine. 8: 686736. doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.686736. ISSN 2296-858X. PMC 8287507. PMID 34291062.
  35. Jäkel, Bianka; Kedor, Claudia; Grabowski, Patricia; Wittke, Kirsten; Thiel, Silvia; Scherbakov, Nadja; Doehner, Wolfram; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Freitag, Helma (April 19, 2021). "Hand grip strength and fatigability: correlation with clinical parameters and diagnostic suitability in ME/CFS". Journal of Translational Medicine. 19 (1): 159. doi:10.1186/s12967-021-02774-w. ISSN 1479-5876. PMC 8056497. PMID 33874961.
  36. Szklarski, Marvin; Freitag, Helma; Lorenz, Sebastian; Becker, Sonya C.; Sotzny, Franziska; Bauer, Sandra; Hartwig, Jelka; Heidecke, Harald; Wittke, Kirsten; Kedor, Claudia; Hanitsch, Leif G.; Grabowski, Patricia; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Scheibenbogen, Carmen (2021). "Delineating the Association Between Soluble CD26 and Autoantibodies Against G-Protein Coupled Receptors, Immunological and Cardiovascular Parameters Identifies Distinct Patterns in Post-Infectious vs. Non-Infection-Triggered Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Frontiers in Immunology. 12: 644548. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.644548. ISSN 1664-3224. PMC 8056217. PMID 33889154.

antibodies Antibody/immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

autoantibody An antibody that works against the body's own antigens, a hallmark of autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies are the opposite of an antibodies.

antibodies Antibody/immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

β β / Β. Greek letter beta (a symbol used in science), equivalent to "b".

myalgic encephalomyelitis (M.E.) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

antibodies Antibody/immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

antibodies Antibody/immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

mitochondria Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.

autoantibody An antibody that works against the body's own antigens, a hallmark of autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies are the opposite of an antibodies.

autoantibody An antibody that works against the body's own antigens, a hallmark of autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies are the opposite of an antibodies.

β β / Β. Greek letter beta (a symbol used in science), equivalent to "b".

enzyme a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.

BMJ The BMJ (previously the British Medical Journal) is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
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