Sonya M. Marshall-Gradisnik, BSc (Hons), PhD, is co-director (alongside Professor Donald Staines of the National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases (NCNED) at Griffith University in Australia. Her expertise is in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis with particular focus on Natural Killer Cell function and signalling pathways, T regulatory and B cell phenotypes and cytokine production, and transcriptional profiling and gene expression.  In her studies, she compares the changes of the different cells of the immune system in relation to the severity of the disease.
Marshall-Gradisnik is on the Board of Directors of the International Association for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.
In 2015, Griffith University filed for a patent for a biological marker (Patent Publication number WO2016023077 A1) for the diagnosis and management of ME and CFS. Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik and Ekua Brenu are listed as the inventors. The application states: "The present invention resides broadly in the use of at least one miRNA as a biological marker for identifying or diagnosing a subject having CFS and/or ME."
- 2016, A Systematic Review of Drug Therapies for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
- 2016, Progressive brain changes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A longitudinal MRI study
"Abstract: Purpose - To examine progressive brain changes associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Materials and Methods - We investigated progressive brain changes with longitudinal MRI in 15 CFS and 10 normal controls (NCs) scanned twice 6 years apart on the same 1.5 Tesla (T) scanner. MR images yielded gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter (WM) volumes, and T1‐ and T2‐weighted signal intensities (T1w and T2w). Each participant was characterized with Bell disability scores, and somatic and neurological symptom scores. We tested for differences in longitudinal changes between CFS and NC groups, inter group differences between pooled CFS and pooled NC populations, and correlations between MRI and symptom scores using voxel based morphometry. The analysis methodologies were first optimized using simulated atrophy. Results We found a significant decrease in WM volumes in the left inferior fronto‐occipital fasciculus (IFOF) in CFS while in NCs it was unchanged (family wise error adjusted cluster level P value, P FWE < 0.05). This longitudinal finding was consolidated by the group comparisons which detected significantly decreased regional WM volumes in adjacent regions (P FWE < 0.05) and decreased GM and blood volumes in contralateral regions (P FWE < 0.05). Moreover, the regional GM and WM volumes and T2w in those areas showed significant correlations with CFS symptom scores (P FWE < 0.05). Conclusion - The results suggested that CFS is associated with IFOF WM deficits which continue to deteriorate at an abnormal rate."
- 2016, Regulatory T, natural killer T and γδ T cells in multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a comparison.
"Results: We observed significant increase in Tregs in the CFS/ME group (p≤0.005) compared with the healthy controls group. Total γδ and γδ2 T cells were significantly reduced in the MS patients in comparison with the healthy controls group. Conversely, CD4+iNKT percentage of iNKT, was significantly increased in the CFS/ME group compared with healthy controls and double negative iNKT percentage of iNKT significantly decreased compared with the healthy controls group. Conclusion: This study has not identified immunological disturbances that are common in both MS and CFS/ME patients. However differential expression of cell types between the conditions investigated suggests different pathways of disease. These differences need to be explored in further studies."
- 2016, Novel characterisation of mast cell phenotypes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis patients
- 2016, Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor Genotype and Haplotype Investigation of Natural Killer Cells from an Australian Population of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients
- 2016, ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and p38 downstream signalling molecules impaired in CD56dimCD16+ and CD56brightCD16dim/− natural killer cells in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis patients FULL TEXT
Abstract- "Background: Natural Killer (NK) cell effector functions are dependent on phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway to produce an effective immune response for the clearance of target cells infected with viruses, bacteria or malignantly transformed cells. Intracellular signals activating NK cell cytokine production and cytotoxic activity are propagated through protein phosphorylation of MAPKs including MEK1/2, ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity is consistently reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients and intracellular signalling by MAPK in NK cells remains to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to investigate MAPK downstream signalling molecules in NK cell phenotypes from CFS/ME patients. Methods: Flow cytometric protocols were used to measure phosphorylation of the MAPK pathway in CD56brightCD16dim/− and CD56dimCD16+ NK cells following stimulation with K562 tumour cells or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate plus ionomycin. NK cell cytotoxic activity, degranulation, lytic proteins and cytokine production were also measured as markers for CD56brightCD16dim/− and CD56dimCD16+ NK cell function using flow cytometric protocols. Results: CFS/ME patients (n = 14) had a significant decrease in ERK1/2 in CD56dimCD16+ NK cells compared to the non-fatigued controls (n = 11) after incubation with K562 cells. CD56brightCD16dim/− NK cells from CFS/ME patients had a significant increase in MEK1/2 and p38 following incubation with K562 cells. Conclusions: This is the first study to report significant differences in MAPK intracellular signalling molecules in CD56dimCD16+ and CD56brightCD16dim/− NK cells from CFS/ME patients. The current results highlight the importance of intracellular signalling through the MAPK pathway for synergistic effector function of CD56dimCD16+ and CD56brightCD16dim/− NK cells to ensure efficient clearance of target cells. In CFS/ME patients, dysfunctional MAPK signalling may contribute to reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity."
- 2016, Natural killer cells and single nucleotide polymorphisms of specific ion channels and receptor genes in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (FULL TEXT)
Abstract - "Aim: The aim of this paper was to determine natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity and if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotypes in transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels and acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) were present in isolated NK cells from previously identified myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. Subjects and methods: A total of 39 ME/CFS patients (51.69±2 years old) and 30 unfatigued controls (47.60±2.39 years old) were included in this study. Patients were defined according to the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Flow cytometry protocols were used to examine NK cytotoxic activity. A total of 678 SNPs from isolated NK cells were examined for 21 mammalian TRP ion channel genes and for nine mammalian AChR genes via the Agena Bioscience iPlex Gold assay. SNP association and genotype was determined using analysis of variance and Plink software. Results: ME/CFS patients had a significant reduction in NK percentage lysis of target cells (17%±4.68%) compared with the unfatigued control group (31%±6.78%). Of the 678 SNPs examined, eleven SNPs for TRP ion channel genes (TRPC4, TRPC2, TRPM3, and TRPM8) were identified in the ME/CFS group. Five of these SNPs were associated with TRPM3, while the remainder were associated with TRPM8, TRPC2, and TRPC4 (P<0.05). Fourteen SNPs were associated with nicotinic and muscarinic AChR genes: six with CHRNA3, while the remainder were associated with CHRNA2, CHRNB4, CHRNA5, and CHRNE (P<0.05). There were sixteen genotypes identified from SNPs in TRP ion channels and AChRs for TRPM3 (n=5), TRPM8 (n=2), TRPC4 (n=3), TRPC2 (n=1), CHRNE (n=1), CHRNA2 (n=2), CHRNA3 (n=1), and CHRNB4 (n=1) (P<0.05). Conclusion: We identified a number of SNPs and genotypes for TRP ion channels and AChRs from isolated NK cells in patients with ME/CFS, suggesting these SNPs and genotypes may be involved in changes in NK cell function and the development of ME/CFS pathology. These anomalies suggest a role for dysregulation of Ca2+ in AChR and TRP ion channel signaling in the pathomechanism of ME/CFS.
- 2015, A Comparison of Cytokine Profiles of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Abstract - "Background: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, also known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), is a debilitating condition that presents with a range of symptoms, including fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, muscular and joint pain, and may be immune-mediated. In particular, patients exhibit abnormal cytokine expression. Similarly, in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), patients display neuroimmunological symptoms, and abnormal cytokine expression, with some overlap in symptomology with CFS/ME. The purpose of this study was to compare Th1, Th2, Th17 cytokines, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, in healthy controls, CFS/ME and MS patients. Methods: Serum samples were collected from healthy controls (n = 16, mean age = 50 ± 11.85 years), CFS/ME patients (n = 16, mean age = 49.88 ± 9.54 years) and MS patients (n = 11, mean age = 52.75 ± 12.81 years). The concentrations of 27 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-2, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-5, IL-17, IL-1ra, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP1α, MIP1β, PDGF-bb, RANTES, basic FGF, GCSF, GMCSF, VEGF and IL-15) were measured using a Bio-Plex Pro™ kit. Results: IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-5 were significantly higher in the serum of both CFS/ME and MS patients compared to the healthy controls (p ≤ 0.041). However, only the MS patients had significantly elevated levels of IL-12, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, IL-17, IL-1ra, IL-7, IL-9, eotaxin, IL-10, MIP1α, basic FGF, GCSF and VEGF compared to the CFS/ME patients and controls (p ≤ 0.04). There were no significant differences between groups for IL-8, MCP-1, MIP1β, RANTES, GMCSF, TNF-α, and IL-2. Conclusion: CFS/ME and MS patients both displayed abnormal cytokine levels, with dual expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Further research into cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-5, with the use of a specific CFS/ME case definition and sensitive cytokine assays, is required to improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of CFS/ME."
- 2015, Cytokines in the Cerebrospinal Fluids of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
- 2015, Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients
- 2015, Longitudinal analysis of immune abnormalities in varying severities of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis patients
"Conclusions: Severe CFS/ME patients differed from controls and moderate CFS/ME patients over time and expressed significant alterations in iNKT cell phenotypes, CD8+T cell markers, NK cell receptors and γδT cells at 6 months. This highlights the importance of further assessing these potential immune biomarkers longitudinally in both moderate and severe CFS/ME patients."
- 2015, Characterisation of cell functions and receptors in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)
"Conclusions: This study was the first to show significant differences in a number of receptors in NK, CD4+T and CD8+T cells in CFS/ME suggesting dysregulation in NK cell cytotoxic activity, receptor regulation and potentially cell adherence. Consistent with previous literature, our research suggests that CFS/ME patients have immunological dysregulation in the innate and adaptive immune cells. We have also highlighted significant differences in NK, CD4+T and CD8+T cells between moderate and severe CFS/ME patients, suggesting severity subgroups may have distinct immune perturbations and consequently aetiology. Further studies examining severity subgroups of CFS/ME patients may therefore contribute to the understanding of the pathomechanism associated with the illness."
- 2015, Examination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Ion Channels in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients
Abstract - "Background: The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily in humans comprises 27 cation channels with permeability to monovalent and divalent cations. These channels are widely expressed within humans on cells and tissues and have significant sensory and regulatory roles on most physiological functions. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an unexplained disorder with multiple physiological impairments. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of TRPs in CFS. Methods: The study comprised 115 CFS patients (age = 48.68 ± 1.06 years) and 90 nonfatigued controls (age = 46.48 ± 1.22 years). CFS patients were defined according to the 1994 Center for Disease Prevention and Control criteria for CFS. A total of 240 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 21 mammalian TRP ion channel genes (TRPA1, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC6, TRPC7, TRPM1, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPV5, and TRPV6) were examined via the Agena Biosciences iPLEX Gold assay. Statistical analysis was performed using the PLINK analysis software. Results: Thirteen SNPs were significantly associated with CFS patients compared with the controls. Nine of these SNPs were associated with TRPM3 (rs12682832; P ≤ 0.003, rs11142508; P < 0.004, rs1160742; P < 0.08, rs4454352; P ≤ 0.013, rs1328153; P ≤ 0.013, rs3763619; P ≤ 0.014, rs7865858; P ≤ 0.021, rs1504401; P ≤ 0041, rs10115622; P ≤ 0.050), while the remainder were associated with TRPA1 (rs2383844; P ≤ 0.040, rs4738202; P ≤ 0.018) and TRPC4 (rs6650469; P ≤ 0.016, rs655207; P ≤ 0.018). Conclusion: The data from this pilot study suggest an association between TRP ion channels, predominantly TRPM3 and CFS. This and other TRPs identified may contribute to the etiology and pathomechanism of CFS."
- 2014, Characterization of Natural Killer Cell Phenotypes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis FULL TEXT
Abstract - Objective: Natural Killer (NK) cells are classified into different phenotypes according to the expression of the surface markers CD56 and CD16. Each NK cell phenotype has a role in the immune response through cytotoxic activity or cytokine production. Reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity is a consistent finding in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and investigations into the potential causes of reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity have predominantly focused on total NK cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate and characterize four NK cell phenotypes in CFS/ME. Methods: Twenty nine CFS/ME patients (mean age ± SEM=48.28 ± 2.63) meeting the 1994 Fukuda definition and 27 healthy controls (mean age ± SEM=49.15 ± 2.51) were included in this study. Flow cytometric protocols identified CD56bright CD16-/dim, CD56dimCD16-, CD56dimCD16+ or CD56-CD16+ NK cells for the measurement of surface markers including adhesion molecules CD2, CD18, CD11a, CD11b and CD11c, natural cytotoxicity receptors, Killer Immunoglobulin Like Receptors, signalling lymphocytic activation molecules and cell maturation (CD57). Following stimulation, NK cell phenotype expression of CD107a and CD107b was measured as a marker for degranulation. Intracellular staining measured lytic proteins including perforin, Granzyme A and Granzyme B in the four NK cell phenotypes. Results: In the CFS/ME group, CD56brightCD16-/dim NK cell co-expression of adhesion molecules CD2 and CD18 was significantly reduced. Granzyme B was significantly decreased in CD56dimCD16+ and CD56-CD16+ NK cells from CFS/ME patients. CD57 expression on CD56dimCD16+ NK cells from CFS/ME patients was significantly increased. Conclusion: This is the first study to characterize four NK cell phenotypes in CFS/ME by investigating surface and intracellular molecules necessary for NK cell effector function. The data suggests that a combination of impairments in CD56dimCD16+ NK cells from CFS/ME patients may contribute to reduced cytotoxic activity of this phenotype.
- 2014, The Role of Adaptive and Innate Immune Cells in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis FULL TEXT
Abstract: "Perturbations in immune processes are a hallmark of a number of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is an inflammatory disorder with possible autoimmune correlates, characterized by reduced NK cell activity, elevations in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and dysregulation in cytokine levels. The purpose of this article is to examine innate and adaptive immune cell phenotypes and functional characteristics that have not been previously examined in CFS/ME patients. Thirty patients with CFS/ME and 25 non-fatigued controls were recruited for this study. Whole blood samples were collected from all participants for the assessment of cell phenotypes, functional properties, receptors, adhesion molecules, antigens and intracellular proteins using flow cytometric protocols. The cells investigated included NK cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, B cells, T cells, γδT cells and Tregs. Significant changes were observed in B-cell subsets, Tregs, CD4+CD73+CD39+ T cells, cytotoxic activity, granzyme B, neutrophil antigens, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the CFS/ME patients in comparison with the non-fatigued controls. Alterations in B cells, Tregs, NK cells and neutrophils suggest significant impairments in immune regulation in CFS/ME and these may have similarities to a number of autoimmune disorders."
- 2014, Analysis of the Relationship between Immune Dysfunction and Symptom Severity in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) FULL TEXT
Abstract - "Objective: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a disabling illness, characterised by persistent, debilitating fatigue and a multitude of symptoms. Immunological alterations are prominent in CFS/ME cases, however little is known about the relationship between CFS/ME severity and the extent of immunological dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess innate and adaptive immune cell phenotypes and function of two groups of CFS/ME patients, bedridden (severe) and mobile (moderate). Methods: CFS/ME participants were defined using the Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (1994 CDC) Criteria for CFS/ME. Participants were grouped into healthy controls (n=22, age=40.14 ± 2.38), moderate/ mobile (n=23; age=42.52 ± 2.63) and severe/bedridden (n=18; age=39.56 ± 1.51) CFS/ME patients. Flow cytometric protocols were used to examine neutrophil, monocyte, dendritic cells (DCs), iNKT, Treg, B, γδ and CD8+ T cell phenotypes, NK cytotoxic activity and receptors. Results: The present data found that CFS/ME patients demonstrated significant decreases in NK cytotoxic activity, transitional and regulatory B cells, γδ1T cells, KIR2DL1/DS1, CD94+ and KIR2DL2/L3. Significant increases in CD56-CD16+NKs, CD56dimCD16- and CD56brightCD16-/dim NKs, DCs, iNKT phenotypes, memory and naive B cells were also shown in CFS/ME participants. Severe CFS/ME patients demonstrated increased CD14-CD16+ DCs, memory and naïve B cells, total iNKT, iNKT cell and NK phenotypes compared to moderate CFS/ME patients. Conclusion: This study is the first to determine alterations in NK, iNKT, B, DC and γδ T cell phenotypes in both moderate and severe CFS/ME patients. Immunological alterations are present in innate and adaptive immune cells and sometimes, immune deregulation appears worse in CFS/ME patients with more severe symptoms. It may be appropriate for CFS/ME patient severity subgroups to be distinguished in both clinical and research settings to extricate further immunological pathologies that may not have been previously reported."
- 2014, The role of clinical guidelines for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in research settings
Abstract - Background: Chronic fatigue syndrome, also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a particularly difficult illness to identify. To aid in classifying patients for research as well as clinical care, potential cases may be evaluated according to clinical guidelines. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of three sets of guidelines currently available: the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) Toolkit; the International Association for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (IACFS/ME) Primer; and the International Consensus Primer. Methods: These guidelines were examined and compared with respect to required symptoms, laboratory and investigative protocols, and exclusionary and comorbid conditions. The comparisons were also intended to evaluate the guidelines in light of new research that advances the clinical understanding of CFS/ME and assists in identifying patients. Results: Guidelines vary significantly in the symptoms and comorbidities considered in light of the differing symptom requirements of three case definitions. There is also no specification on how symptoms should be measured, contributing to the significant heterogeneity found in CFS/ME. Conclusions: Further revision of clinical guidelines, preferably based on a definition that is well-informed by current empirical studies, is recommended to ensure that guidelines are applied with consistency and understanding in both research and clinical settings.
Open Letter to The Lancet
Two open letters to the editor of The Lancet urged the editor to commission a fully independent review of the PACE trial, which the journal had published in 2011. In 2016, Dr. Marshall-Gradisnik, along with 41 colleagues in the ME/CFS field, signed the second letter.
- 10 February 2016, An open letter to The Lancet, again - Virology blog
Talks & interviews
- 2016, Australian scientists make breakthrough in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome testing
- 2015, Speaker at the 10th Invest in ME International ME Conference DVD available(no speech title given)]
- 2014, "Professor Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik, Australia's foremost expert on chronic fatigue syndrome" interviewed on ABC Gold Coast
- 2014, Speaker at the 9th Invest in ME International ME Conference DVD available(no speech title given)]
- 2012, Speaker at the 7th Invest in ME International ME Conference DVD available(no speech title given)]
- 2012, Keynote address by Prof Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik at Emerge Australia (formerly ME/CFS Australia (Victoria)) Awareness Week
- PubMed - Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik
- Griffith University - Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik
- National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases
- 2016, News Article - "Closer to a Full Understanding of chronic fatigue syndrome"
- 2014, "Gold Coast’s Griffith University to lead way in the battle against chronic fatigue"
- Donald Staines
- National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases
- Diagnostic biomarker
- Ekua Brenu
- Carruthers, BM; van de Sande, MI; De Meirleir, KL; Klimas, NG; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, A C P; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, DS; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, D; Light, A; Marshall-Gradisnik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, JA; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, ML; Stevens, S (2011), "Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria.", Journal of Internal Medicine, 270 (4): 327-38, PMID 21777306, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02428.x
- Collatz, Ansel; Johnston, Samantha C.; Staines, Donald R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M. (2016), "A Systematic Review of Drug Therapies for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis", Clinical Therapeutics, 38 (6): 1263-1271.e9, PMID 27229907, doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2016.04.038
- Shan, Zack Y.; Kwiatek, Richard; Burnet, Richard; Del Fante, Peter; Staines, Donald R.; Marshall‐Gradisnik, Sonya; Barnden, Leighton R. (2016), "Progressive brain changes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A longitudinal MRI study", Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 44: 1301–1311, doi:10.1002/jmri.25283
- Ramos, S; Brenu, E; Broadley, S; Kwiatek, R; Ng, J; Nguyen, T; Freeman, S; Staines, D; Marshall-Gradisnik, S (20 March 2016), "Regulatory T, natural killer T and γδ T cells in multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a comparison", Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, doi:10.12932/AP0733
- Huth, Teilah K.; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya (2016), "ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and p38 downstream signalling molecules impaired in CD56dimCD16+ and CD56brightCD16dim/− natural killer cells in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis patients", Journal of Translational Medicine, 14 (97), doi:10.1186/s12967-016-0859-z
- Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M.; Huth, Teilah; Chacko, Anu; Johnston, Samantha; Smith, Peter; Staines, Donald R. (2016), "Natural killer cells and single nucleotide polymorphisms of specific ion channels and receptor genes in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome", The Application of Clinical Genetics, 9: 39—47, doi:10.2147/TACG.S99405
- Wong, Naomi; Nguyen, Thao; Brenu, Ekua Weba; Broadley, Simon; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya (2015), "A Comparison of Cytokine Profiles of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis Patients", International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6 (10): 769-783, doi:10.4236/ijcm.2015.610103
- Peterson, D; Brenu, EW; Gottschalk, G; Ramos, Sandra B; Nguyen, T; Staines, D; Marshall-Gradisnik, S (2015), "Cytokines in the Cerebrospinal Fluids of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis", Mediators of Inflammation, 2015, doi:10.1155/2015/929720
- Hardcastle, SL; Brenu, EW; Johnston, S; Nguyen, T; Huth, T; Wong, N; Ramos, S; Staines, DR; Marshall-Gradisnik, SM (2015), "Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients", International Journal of Medical Sciences, 12 (10): 764-772, doi:10.7150/ijms.12399
- Hardcastle, Sharni Lee; Brenu, Ekua Weba; Johnston, Samantha; Nguyen, Thao; Huth, Teilah; Ramos, Sandra; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya (2015), "Longitudinal analysis of immune abnormalities in varying severities of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis patients", Journal of Translational Medicine, 13 (299), doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0653-3
- Hardcastle, SL; Brenu, EW; Johnston, S; Nguyen, T; Huth, T; Wong, N; Ramos, S; Staines, DR; Marshall-Gradisnik, SM (2015), "Characterisation of cell functions and receptors in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)", BMC Immunology, 16 (35), doi:10.1186/s12865-015-0101-4
- Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M.; Smith, Peter; Brenu, Ekua W.; Nilius, Bernd; Ramos, Sandra B.; Staines, Donald R. (2015), "Examination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Ion Channels in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients", Immunology and Immunogenetics Insights, 2015 (7): 1-6, doi:10.4137/III.S25147
- Huth, Teilah K.; Brenu, Ekua; Nguyen, Thao; Hardcastle, Sharni L.; Johnston, Samantha; Ramos, Sandra; Staines, Donald R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M. (2014), "Characterization of Natural Killer Cell Phenotypes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis", Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, 5 (3), doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000223
- Brenu, EW; Huth, TK; Hardcastle, SL; Fuller, K; Kaur, M; Johnston, S; Ramos, Sandra; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya (2014), "The Role of adaptive and innate immune cells in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis", International Immunology, 26 (4): 233-42, PMID 24343819, doi:10.1093/intimm/dxt068
- Hardcastle, Sharni Lee; Brenu, Ekua Weba; Johnston, Samantha; Nguyen, Thao; Huth, Teilah; Kaur, Manprit; Ramos, Sandra; Salajegheh, Ali; Staines, Donald R; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya (2014), "Analysis of the Relationship between Immune Dysfunction and Symptom Severity in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)", Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, 5 (190), doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000190
- Johnston, S.C.; Brenu, E.W.; Staines, D.R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, S.M. (2014), "The role of clinical guidelines for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in research settings.", Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior, 2 (1): 28-39, doi:10.1080/21641846.2013.860779