Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), also known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the detection of metabolites in tissues. MRS observes the local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei. MRS incorporates a similar model as an MRI. Similar to PET, MRS can measure the specific concentration of specific biochemicals. Usage of MRS in ME/CFS patients in relatively new and has advantages and disadvantages over other scanning technologies.
MRS and PET[edit | edit source]
MRS can be used to complement PET for studying neuroinflammation. PET scans are generally more accurate at analyzing specific metabolites. MRS usually reports metabolites as a ratio of one metabolite vs. another, while PET reports an absolute concentration. However, PET scans are invasive as radioligands are injected while MRS is not invasive. MRS is able to produce high-resolution, high contrast images of soft tissue. On the other hand, PET is able to measure the distribution of radiotracers and biochemicals with high sensitivity. Although not many labs have dual MRS-PET scanners, incorporating both techniques into one is able to combine the strengths from MRS and PET.
MRS Studies in ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
MRS's ability to detect metabolites is useful for studying inflammation, metabolism, and overall brain health. Therefore, MRS and MRS-PET has been utilized in ME/CFS patients to analyze neuroinflammation,
- Natelson et al. 2017
- Found a significant difference between ME/CFS patients and control group when comparing lactate in the ventricles region
- Van der Schaaf et al. 2017
- Found no significant differences in metabolites between ME/CFS patients and controls
- Shungu et al. 2012
- Found significant differences in lactate and glutathione in the occipital cortex and ventricles
- Murrough et al. 2010
- Found a significant difference in lactate between ME/CFS patients and control group in the anterior cingulate cortex, occipital cortex, and ventricles
- Puri et al. 2009
- Mathew et al. 2008
- Found a significant difference in lactate between ME/CFS patients and control group in corpus callosum and ventricles
- Puri et al. 2002
- Found a significant differences in choline between ME/CFS patients and control group in occipital cortex and left motor cortex
- Brooks et al. 2000
- Tomoda et al.
- Found a significant difference in choline between ME/CFS patients and control group in frontal white matter
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- VanElzakker, Michael B.; Brumfield, Sydney A.; Lara Mejia, Paula S. (2019). "Neuroinflammation and Cytokines in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): A Critical Review of Research Methods". Frontiers in Neurology. 9. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.01033. ISSN 1664-2295. PMC 6335565. PMID 30687207.
- Catana, Ciprian; Procissi, Daniel; Wu, Yibao; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Qi, Jinyi; Pichler, Bernd J.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Cherry, Simon R. (March 11, 2008). "Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (10): 3705–3710. doi:10.1073/pnas.0711622105. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2268792. PMID 18319342.
- Natelson, Benjamin H.; Vu, Diana; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mao, Xiangling; Blate, Michelle; Kang, Guoxin; Soto, Eli; Kapusuz, Tolga; Shungu, Dikoma C. (January 2, 2017). "Elevations of ventricular lactate levels occur in both chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia". Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior. 5 (1): 15–20. doi:10.1080/21641846.2017.1280114. ISSN 2164-1846. PMC 5754037. PMID 29308330.
- van der Schaaf, Marieke E.; De Lange, Floris P.; Schmits, Iris C.; Geurts, Dirk E.M.; Roelofs, Karin; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Toni, Ivan; Knoop, Hans (February 2017). "Prefrontal Structure Varies as a Function of Pain Symptoms in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Biological Psychiatry. 81 (4): 358–365. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.07.016.
- Shungu, Dikoma C.; Weiduschat, Nora; Murrough, James W.; Mao, Xiangling; Pillemer, Sarah; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Medow, Marvin S.; Natelson, Benjamin H.; Stewart, Julian M. (September 2012). "Increased ventricular lactate in chronic fatigue syndrome. III. Relationships to cortical glutathione and clinical symptoms implicate oxidative stress in disorder pathophysiology: VENTRICULAR LACTATE, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IN CFS". NMR in Biomedicine. 25 (9): 1073–1087. doi:10.1002/nbm.2772.
- Murrough, James W.; Mao, Xiangling; Collins, Katherine A.; Kelly, Chris; Andrade, Gizely; Nestadt, Paul; Levine, Susan M.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Shungu, Dikoma C. (March 16, 2010). "Increased ventricular lactate in chronic fatigue syndrome measured by 1H MRS imaging at 3.0 T. II: comparison with major depressive disorder". NMR in Biomedicine. 23 (6): 643–650. doi:10.1002/nbm.1512.
- Puri, B.K.; Agour, M.; Gunatilake, K.D.R.; Fernando, K.A.C.; Gurusinghe, A.I.; Treasaden, I.H. (November 2009). "An in vivo proton neurospectroscopy study of cerebral oxidative stress in myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome)". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 81 (5–6): 303–305. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2009.10.002.
- Mathew, Sanjay J.; Mao, Xiangling; Keegan, Kathryn A.; Levine, Susan M.; Smith, Eric L.P.; Heier, Linda A.; Otcheretko, Viktor; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Shungu, Dikoma C. (April 2009). "Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid lactate is increased in chronic fatigue syndrome compared with generalized anxiety disorder: an in vivo 3.0 T 1 H MRS imaging study". NMR in Biomedicine. 22 (3): 251–258. doi:10.1002/nbm.1315.
- Puri, B.K.; Counsell, S.J.; Zaman, R.; Main, J.; Collins, A.G.; Hajnal, J.V.; Davey, N.J. (September 2002). "Relative increase in choline in the occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome: Occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 106 (3): 224–226. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0447.2002.01300.x.
- Brooks, J C; Roberts, N; Whitehouse, G; Majeed, T (November 2000). "Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and morphometry of the hippocampus in chronic fatigue syndrome". The British Journal of Radiology. 73 (875): 1206–1208. doi:10.1259/bjr.73.875.11144799. ISSN 0007-1285.
- Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Yamada, Eiji; Honda, Hajime; Moroi, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Masakatsu; Ohtani, Yoshinobu; Morishita, Shoji (January 2000). "Chronic fatigue syndrome in childhood". Brain and Development. 22 (1): 60–64. doi:10.1016/S0387-7604(99)00111-4.