Anti-inflammatory diets

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history

A number of different diets have been proposed to be anti-inflammatory diets, with the mediterranean diet being the best-researched anti-inflammatory diets.[1]

Anti-inflammatory diets aim to reduce foods or nutrients that cause inflammation and to increase foods or nutrients that reduce levels of inflammation in the body.[1]

Theory[edit | edit source]

Increasing evidence shows that chronic fatigue caused by many different physical illnesses is linked to chronic low-level inflammation in the body. Raised levels of inflammatory substances and inflammation in areas of the body have also been found in ME/CFS patients, including neuroinflammation.[2] Anti-inflammatory diets aim to reduce the level of inflammation in the hope that this will reduce systems, particularly to reduce fatigue.[1]

Some anti-inflammatory diets may cure certain illnesses in a subgroup of people, for example the DASH diet aims to reduce or cure hypertension.[3]

Types[edit | edit source]

Evidence[edit | edit source]

ME/CFS cannot be diagnosed if a person is suffering from malnutrition, vitamin or mineral deficiencies, so medical tests must rule these out before diagnosis, and it is highly unlikely that ME/CFS would be cured by a change of diet.

In ME/CFS a number of studies have shown the presence of inflammation including neuroinflammation.[7][8]
However, no particular diet is recommended for ME/CFS beyond a healthy, balanced diet[8][7] and there is a lack of clinical trials to establish the effects and potential harms of various different anti-inflammatory diets on patients with ME/CFS.[5]

A limited number of dietary supplements do have evidence of benefits for people with ME/CFS.[7][5]

Clinicians[edit | edit source]

Risks and safety[edit | edit source]

  • People with ME/CFS often develop food intolerances, so any diet would need to be adapted for this
  • A lack of clinical trials and a lack of expert ME/CFS clinicians advising on anti-inflammatory diets mean that potential benefits and risks are largely unknown.
  • An internet-based study found that many people seek dietary information online, especially for ME/CFS, multiple chemical sensitivity, and rheumatoid arthritis, but those who self-reported improvements as a result of altering their diet were more likely to report improvements related to other illnesses rather than ME/CFS. Feeling more refreshed after sleep was mentioned by many, although these were for a variety of different diets and it is not clear how many ME/CFS patients experienced this.[4] Many patients did report improvements in many irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, and IBS is common in ME/CFS.[7]

Costs and availability[edit | edit source]

Readily available. Some diets may be expensive, eg if they suggest only organic foods or gluten-free foods are used.

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

  • 2016, A systematic review of probiotic interventions for gastrointestinal symptoms and irritable bowel syndrome in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)[9] - (Abstract)
  • 2017, Dietary and nutrition interventions for the therapeutic treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a systematic review[10] - (Full text)
  • 2017, Role of dietary modification in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms: a systematic review[5] - (Full text)
  • 2018, Whole grain diet reduces systemic inflammation[6] - (Full text)
  • 2019, Anti-Inflammatory Diets and Fatigue[1] - (Full text)
  • 2019, Inflammatory proteins are altered in chronic fatigue syndrome–a systematic review and meta-analysis[2] - (Full text)
  • 2020, Inflaming Public Interest: A Qualitative Study of Adult Learners’ Perceptions on Nutrition and Inflammation[4] - (Full text)

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Haß, Ulrike; Herpich, Catrin; Norman, Kristina (September 30, 2019). "Anti-Inflammatory Diets and Fatigue". Nutrients. 11 (10): 2315. doi:10.3390/nu11102315. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 6835556. PMID 31574939.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Strawbridge, Rebecca; Sartor, Maria-Laura; Scott, Fraser; Cleare, Anthony J. (December 1, 2019). "Inflammatory proteins are altered in chronic fatigue syndrome—A systematic review and meta-analysis". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 107: 69–83. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.08.011. ISSN 0149-7634.
  3. "DASH Eating Plan". National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute | National Institutes of Health. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Cowan, Stephanie; Sood, Surbhi; Truby, Helen; Dordevic, Aimee; Adamski, Melissa; Gibson, Simone (January 28, 2020). "Inflaming Public Interest: A Qualitative Study of Adult Learners' Perceptions on Nutrition and Inflammation". Nutrients. 12 (2): 345. doi:10.3390/nu12020345. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 7071230. PMID 32012994.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Jones, Kathryn; Probst, Yasmine (2017). "Role of dietary modification in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms: a systematic review". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 41 (4): 338–344. doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12670. ISSN 1753-6405.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Xu, Yujie; Wan, Qianyi; Feng, Jinhua; Du, Liang; Li, Ka; Zhou, Yong (October 26, 2018). "Whole grain diet reduces systemic inflammation". Medicine. 97 (43): e12995. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000012995. ISSN 0025-7974. PMC 6221555. PMID 30412134.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Carruthers, BM; van de Sande, MI; De Meirleir, KL; Klimas, NG; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, ACP; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Bell, DS; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Gerken, A; Jo, D; Lewis, DP; Light, AR; Light, KC; Marshall-Gradisnik, S; McLaren-Howard, J; Mena, I; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Stevens, SR (2012), Myalgic encephalomyelitis: Adult & Paediatric: International Consensus Primer for Medical Practitioners (PDF), ISBN 978-0-9739335-3-6
  8. 8.0 8.1 Carruthers, Bruce M.; Jain, Anil Kumar; De Meirleir, Kenny L.; Peterson, Daniel L.; Klimas, Nancy G.; Lerner, A. Martin; Bested, Alison C.; Flor-Henry, Pierre; Joshi, Pradip; Powles, AC Peter; Sherkey, Jeffrey A.; van de Sande, Marjorie I. (2003). "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Clinical Working Case Definition, Diagnostic and Treatment Protocols" (PDF). Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 11 (2): 7–115. doi:10.1300/J092v11n01_02.
  9. Corbitt, Matthew; Campagnolo, N.; Staines, D.; Marshall-Gradisnik, S. (September 1, 2018). "A Systematic Review of Probiotic Interventions for Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)". Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. 10 (3): 466–477. doi:10.1007/s12602-018-9397-8. ISSN 1867-1314.
  10. Campagnolo, N.; Johnston, S.; Collatz, A.; Staines, D.; Marshall-Gradisnik, S. (2017). "Dietary and nutrition interventions for the therapeutic treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a systematic review". Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 30 (3): 247–259. doi:10.1111/jhn.12435. ISSN 1365-277X. PMC 5434800. PMID 28111818.