Methylphenidate is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, most often used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Methylphenidate hydrochloride has many brand names, including Tranquilyn and Ritalin.
Theory[edit | edit source]
Methylphenidate increases activity in areas of the brain that are underactive in ADHD, including those involved in impulsive behavior and concentration.
KPAX002 mitochondria nutrients[edit | edit source]
Dr. Jon Kaiser is performing clinical trials on a pharmaceutical product which he developed called Synergy (KPAX002) which is a combination of a low dosage of methylphenidate hydrochloride and over-the-counter mitochondrial support nutrients.
The KPAX002 mitochondria support nutrients are:
- Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), which has a role in metabolism
- alpha lipoic acid (ALA, an antioxidant)
- beta carotene, an antioxidant
- vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin C
plus the minerals:
Evidence[edit | edit source]
Methylphenidate has been used with success in a subset of ME/CFS patients. In 2016, Blockmans, et al, concluded that use of methylphenidate by CFS patients with concentration difficulties had a positive effect in about one out of three clinical trial patients.
The phase II study concluded that 36% of the patients taking the Synergy treatment had a >20% reduction in overall ME/CFS symptoms after 28 days. Kaiser patented the KPAX002 combination prior to publishing the trial results.
Dosage[edit | edit source]
A low dose is suggested for ME/CFS of 5 - 10mg in the mornings.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 2015, A prospective, proof-of-concept investigation of KPAX002 in chronic fatigue syndrome. (Full Text)
- 2018, KPAX002 as a treatment for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): A prospective, randomized trial (Full Text)
Risks and safety[edit | edit source]
A wide variety of side effects have been reported, some of which need immediate medical attention.
Common side effects include suicidality, mood swings and heart problems.
Costs and availability[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- Tranquilin patient information leaflet - drugs.com
- Methylphenidate FDA prescribing information - drugs.com
References[edit | edit source]
- "Methylphenidate Tablets - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses". Drugs.com. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- "Methylphenidate Hydrochloride 5mg tablets". Drugs.com. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
- Carruthers, Bruce M.; Jain, Anil Kumar; De Meirleir, Kenny L.; Peterson, Daniel L.; Klimas, Nancy G.; Lerner, A. Martin; Bested, Alison C.; Flor-Henry, Pierre; Joshi, Pradip; Powles, AC Peter; Sherkey, Jeffrey A.; van de Sande, Marjorie I. (2003), "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Clinical Working Case Definition, Diagnostic and Treatment Protocols" (PDF), Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 11 (2): 7–115, doi:10.1300/J092v11n01_02
- Blockmans, Daniel; Persoons, Philippe (June 27, 2016). "Long-term methylphenidate intake in chronic fatigue syndrome". Acta Clinica Belgica. 71 (6): 407–414. doi:10.1080/17843286.2016.1200816. ISSN 1784-3286.
- Kaiser, JD (July 15, 2015), "A prospective, proof-of-concept investigation of KPAX002 in chronic fatigue syndrome", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 8 (7): 11064–11074, PMID 26379906
- Montoya, Jose G; Anderson, Jill N; Adolphs, Danya L; Bateman, Lucinda; Klimas, Nancy; Levine, Susan M; Garvert, Donn W; Kaiser, Jon D (2018), "KPAX002 as a treatment for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): A prospective, randomized trial" (PDF), International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 11 (3): 2890-2900