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Neopterin is part of the pteridin class of molecules. Neopterin acts as a marker for immune system activation and neuroinflammation.[1][2]

Neopterin is found in blood serum, urine, tears, Cerebrospinal fluid.[3][4]

Neopterin in cerebrospinal fluid has also been suggested as a possible biomarker for flu-associated encephalopathy in children.[4]

Function[edit | edit source]

Neopterin is also a metabolite of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) that is produced by a type of white blood cell known as macrophages after IFN-γ stimulation.[3]

Research on brains affected by Alzheimer's disease has shown levels of neopterin are five times higher than in healthy brains. Some evidence suggests that microglia may produce neopterin during physiological stress, and that neopterin may have a protective role in response to damage or inflammation.[2]

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Maes et al. (2012) found that levels of lysozyme and neopterin were significantly higher in patients with ME/CFS compared to patients with chronic fatigue and healthy controls.[5]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Verheul, Cassandra; Kleijn, Anne; Lamfers, Martine L. M. (January 1, 2018). Deisenhammer, Florian; Teunissen; Tumani, Hayrettin (eds.). Chapter 10 - Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of malignancies located in the central nervous system. Cerebrospinal Fluid in Neurologic Disorders. 146. Elsevier. pp. 139–169. Unknown parameter |editor2- first= ignored (help)
  2. 2.02.1 Colette Daubner, S.; Lanzas, Ronald O. (January 1, 2018). Pteridines☆. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12-801238-3.
  3. 3.03.1 Rovenský, Jozef; Payer, Juraj; Herold, Manfred (November 16, 2015). Dictionary of Rheumatology. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-21335-4.
  4. 4.04.1 Macdonald-Laurs, Emma; Koirala, Archana; Britton, Philip N.; Rawlinson, William; Hiew, Chee Chung; Mcrae, Jocelynne; Dale, Russell C.; Jones, Cheryl; Macartney, Kristine (January 1, 2019). "CSF neopterin, a useful biomarker in children presenting with influenza associated encephalopathy?". European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 23 (1): 204–213. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.09.009. ISSN 1090-3798.
  5. 5.05.1 Maes, Michael; Twisk, Frank N.M.; Kubera, Marta; Ringel, Karl (February 2012). "Evidence for inflammation and activation of cell-mediated immunity in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): Increased interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, PMN-elastase, lysozyme and neopterin". Journal of Affective Disorders. 136 (3): 933–939. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.09.004. ISSN 0165-0327.
  6. Maes, Michael; Kubera, Marta; Stoyanova, Kristina; Leunis, Jean-Claude (January 29, 2021). "The Reification of the Clinical Diagnosis of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) as an Immune and Oxidative Stress Disorder: Construction of a Data-Driven Nomothethic Network and Exposure of ME/CFS Subgroups". Preprints. doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0623.v1. Retrieved February 12, 2021.

serum The clear yellowish fluid that remains from blood plasma after clotting factors have been removed by clot formation. (Blood plasma is simply blood that has had its blood cells removed.)

metabolite A chemical compound produced by, or involved in, metabolism. The term is often used to refer to the degradation products of drugs in the body.

microglia A type of immune cell, called a macrophage, that lives in the brain. For historical reasons, macrophages have different names based on the part of the body that they normally live in. Macrophages that normally live in the blood are called monocytes. Macrophages that normally live in the skin are called Langerhans cells. Macrophages that normally live in the liver are called Kupffer cells. And macrophages that normally live in the central nervous system are called microglia. Microglia were originally classified as glial cells, under the assumption that the cells had a merely structural function, before it was realized that the cells were in fact immune cells. As the "sentinel cells" of the central nervous system, microglia survey their environment for abnormalities such as infection or tissue damage, and then initiate an immune response to fight the infection or repair the tissue damage.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (M.E.) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

γ γ / Γ. Greek letter gamma/gamme (a symbol used in science), third letter of the Greek alphabet. Equivalent to the letter "g".

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