Mental health is a broad term that can refer to cognitive, behavioral, emotional, psychological, and/or social well-being. Mental illness refers to a psychiatric illness, for example depression, anxiety or anorexia nervosa.
ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
Brown et al (2010) found that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome who had both a mental illness before CFS and a current mental illness had greater pain, great sleep dysfunction, and more physical symptoms compared to patients with CFS who did not have a mental illness, or patients whose mental illness only began after they became ill with chronic fatigue syndrome. Level of fatigue was not significantly associated with past or current psychiatric illness, and even chronic fatigue syndrome patients with no psychiatric history had severe disability.
McManimen et al (2018) found that CFS patients who were both depressed and suicidal experienced significantly more stigma and dismissal from doctors and family members regarding their symptoms compared to patients who were neither depressed nor suicidal. Depression and suicidal ideation were also associated with more severe CFS symptoms and a lower quality of life.
In a study comparing functional status and well-being of CFS patients, multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy, controls, Kingdon et al (2018) found that CFS patients scored significantly lower than both MS patients and healthy controls in nearly every category that was studied, including mental health. Additionally, Eaton-Fitch et al (2020) found that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a cohort of Australian CFS patients was significantly lower than the HRQoL of healthy controls.
Loades et al (2017) found that adolescents with CFS and depression experienced significantly more interference with school and social adjustment than adolescent CFS patients who were not depressed; anxiety was not found to have a significant effect on any of the categories studied.
Boulazreg and Rokach (2020) discuss the implications of loneliness and isolation caused by CFS on CFS patients and their caregivers and families. Coping mechanisms for patients, families, and caregivers to deal with loneliness and isolation are also discussed.
Studies[edit | edit source]
- 2006, Differential diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome and major depressive disorder - (Full Text)
- 2008, A Systematic Review of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Don't Assume It's Depression - (Full Text)
- 2009, A review on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET) in myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) / chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): CBT/GET is not only ineffective and not evidence-based, but also potentially harmful for many patients with ME/CFS - (Abstract)
- 2010, Subgroups of chronic fatigue syndrome based on psychiatric disorder onset and current psychiatric status - (Full text)
- 2011, Anxiety and depression in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): Examining the incidence of health anxiety in CFS/ME - (Abstract)
- 2011, Reporting of Harms Associated with Graded Exercise Therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- 2011, Health-related quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: group cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise versus usual treatment. A randomised controlled trial with 1 year of follow-up - (Full)
- 2016, Cognitive behavioural therapy in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: A narrative review on efficacy and informed consent - (Full)
- 2016, Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- 2017, Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients’ reports of symptom changes following cognitive behavioural therapy, graded exercise therapy and pacing treatments: Analysis of a primary survey compared with secondary surveys - (Full text)
- 2017, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Objective Assessments in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- 2017, The presence of co-morbid mental health problems in a cohort of adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome
- 2018, Rethinking the treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- 2018, Cognitive–behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: neither efficacious nor safe
- 2018, Functional status and well-being in people with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome compared with people with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls
- 2018, Effects of unsupportive social interactions, stigma, and symptoms on patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome
- 2020, The lonely, isolating, and alienating impacts of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
- 2020, Health-related quality of life in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
See also[edit | edit source]
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Mental disorders (category)
- Patient mental health
- Psychological signs and symptoms (category)
References[edit | edit source]
- "What Is Mental Health?". www.mentalhealth.gov. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. August 29, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
- "What Is Mental Illness?". www.psychiatry.org. American Psychiatric Association. August 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
- "Mental health: a state of well-being". WHO. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
- Brown, Molly M.; Kaplan, Carly; Jason, Leonard A.; Keys, Christopher B. (2010). "Subgroups of chronic fatigue syndrome based on psychiatric disorder onset and current psychiatric status". Health. 02 (02): 90–96. doi:10.4236/health.2010.22015. ISSN 1949-4998.
- McManimen, Stephanie L.; McClellan, Damani; Stoothoff, Jamie; Jason, Leonard A. (2018). "Effects of unsupportive social interactions, stigma, and symptoms on patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Community Psychology. 46 (8): 959–971. doi:10.1002/jcop.21984. ISSN 1520-6629. PMC 7944645. PMID 30311972.
- Kingdon, Caroline C.; Bowman, Erinna W.; Curran, Hayley; Nacul, Luis; Lacerda, Eliana M. (December 1, 2018). "Functional Status and Well-Being in People with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Compared with People with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls". PharmacoEconomics - Open. 2 (4): 381–392. doi:10.1007/s41669-018-0071-6. ISSN 2509-4254. PMC 6249197. PMID 29536371.
- Eaton-Fitch, N.; Johnston, S. C.; Zalewski, P.; Staines, D.; Marshall-Gradisnik, S. (June 1, 2020). "Health-related quality of life in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: an Australian cross-sectional study". Quality of Life Research. 29 (6): 1521–1531. doi:10.1007/s11136-019-02411-6. ISSN 1573-2649. PMC 7253372. PMID 31970624.
- Loades, Maria Elizabeth; Rimes, Katharine A; Ali, Sheila; Lievesley, Kate; Chalder, Trudie (July 2018). "The presence of co-morbid mental health problems in a cohort of adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome". Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 23 (3): 398–408. doi:10.1177/1359104517736357. ISSN 1359-1045. PMC 6150417. PMID 29096528.
- Boulazreg, Samir; Rokach, Ami (October 20, 2020). "The Lonely, Isolating, and Alienating Implications of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Healthcare. 8 (4): 413. doi:10.3390/healthcare8040413. ISSN 2227-9032. PMC 7711762. PMID 33092097.
- Hawk, C; Jason, L; Torres-Harding, S (2006), "Differential diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome and major depressive disorder" (PDF), International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13 (3): 244-51, doi:10.1207/s15327558ijbm1303_8, PMID 17078775
- Griffith, J. P.; Zarrouf, F. A. (2008), "A Systematic Review of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Don't Assume It's Depression", Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 10 (2): 120–128, PMID 18458765
- Twisk, Frank N. M.; Maes, Michael (2009). "A review on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET) in myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) / chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): CBT/GET is not only ineffective and not evidence-based, but also potentially harmful for many patients with ME/CFS". Neuro Endocrinology Letters. 30 (3): 284–299. ISSN 0172-780X. PMID 19855350.
- Daniels, J; Brigden, A; Kacorova, A (2017), "Anxiety and depression in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): Examining the incidence of health anxiety in CFS/ME", Psychol Psychother, 90 (3): 502-509, doi:10.1111/papt.12118
- Núñez, Montserrat; Fernández-Solà, Joaquim; Nuñez, Esther; Fernández-Huerta, José-Manuel; Godás-Sieso, Teresa; Gomez-Gil, Esther (March 2011). "Health-related quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: group cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise versus usual treatment. A randomised controlled trial with 1 year of follow-up". Clinical Rheumatology. 30 (3): 381–389. doi:10.1007/s10067-010-1677-y. ISSN 1434-9949. PMID 21234629.
- Geraghty, Keith J; Blease, Charlotte (September 15, 2016). "Cognitive behavioural therapy in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: A narrative review on efficacy and informed consent" (PDF). Journal of Health Psychology. 23 (1): 127–138. doi:10.1177/1359105316667798. ISSN 1359-1053.
- Illegems, Jela; Moorkens, Greta; Van Den Eede, Filip (2016). "Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 85 (5): 308. doi:10.1159/000445166. ISSN 1423-0348. PMID 27513528.
- Geraghty, Keith; Hann, Mark; Kurtev, Stoyan (August 29, 2017). "Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients' reports of symptom changes following cognitive behavioural therapy, graded exercise therapy and pacing treatments: Analysis of a primary survey compared with secondary surveys". Journal of Health Psychology. doi:10.1177/1359105317726152.
- McPhee, Graham (2017). "Cognitive behaviour therapy and objective assessments in chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Health Psychology. 22 (9): 1181–1186. doi:10.1177/1359105317707215. ISSN 1461-7277. PMID 28805529.
- Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Kindlon, Tom; Courtney, Robert; Matthees, Alem; Tuller, David; Geraghty, Keith; Levin, Bruce (March 22, 2018). "Rethinking the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome—a reanalysis and evaluation of findings from a recent major trial of graded exercise and CBT". BMC Psychology. 6 (1). doi:10.1186/s40359-018-0218-3. ISSN 2050-7283. PMC 5863477. PMID 29562932.
- Twisk, Frank; Corsius, Lou (August 2018). "Cognitive–behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: neither efficacious nor safe". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 213 (2): 500–501. doi:10.1192/bjp.2018.136. ISSN 0007-1250.
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cognition Thought processes, including attention, reasoning, and memory.
graded exercise therapy (GET) - A gradual increase in exercise or activity, according to a pre-defined plan. Focuses on overcoming the patient's alleged unhelpful illness beliefs that exertion can exacerbate symptoms, rather than on reversing physical deconditioning. Considered controversial, and possibly harmful, in the treatment or management of ME. One of the treatment arms of the controversial PACE trial.
myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.
randomized controlled trial (RCT) - A trial in which participants are randomly assigned to two groups, with one group receiving the treatment being studied and a control or comparison group receiving a sham treatment, placebo, or comparison treatment.
American Psychiatric Association (APA) - The main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world. Not to be confused with the American Psychological Association (also APA).
World Health Organization (WHO) - "A specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations." The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is maintained by WHO.