Beta adrenergic receptor

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The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of guanine nucleotide regulatory binding protein receptors (G protein-coupled receptors) that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).[1]

Adrenergic receptors mediate the effects of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and many adrenergic prescription drugs.[2]

Types[edit | edit source]

Beta adrenergic or β adrenergic receptors are also known as β-ARs or β AdR, have a key role in cardiac regulation.[1]

The beta-adrenergic receptors are:

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

In 2015, a relatively large German study found 29% of ME/CFS patients had elevated autoantibodies to M3 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, as well as ß2 adrenergic receptors.[3]

In 2020, a small Sweden study confirmed these results in two different patient cohorts, but did not find a relationship between adrenergic receptors and the severity of ME.[4] The study assessed patients with moderate ME who met the Canadian and international consensus criteria for ME, plus the Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease criteria, and found that the majority of patients had raised blood plasma concentration of β1, β2, M3 and M4-receptor autoantibodies but cerebrospinal fluid levels were normal. Only 25% of healthy controls had raised autoantibody levels.[4] These findings supported the autoimmune hypothesis for a subset of patients.

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

  • 2012, Differences in metabolite-detecting, adrenergic, and immune gene expression after moderate exercise in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, patients with multiple sclerosis, and healthy controls[5](Full text)
  • 2016, Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[3] - (Full Text)
  • 2018, Immunoadsorption to remove ß2 adrenergic receptor antibodies in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS/ME[6] - (Full Text)
  • 2020, Autoantibodies to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) patients – A validation study in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from two Swedish cohorts[4] - (Full text)
  • 2020, Comparison of Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Between Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Healthy Controls[7] - (Full text)

News articles and blogs[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.01.11.2 Wachter, S. Blake; Gilbert, Edward M. (2012). "Beta-Adrenergic Receptors, from Their Discovery and Characterization through Their Manipulation to Beneficial Clinical Application". Cardiology. 122 (2): 104–112. doi:10.1159/000339271. ISSN 0008-6312. PMID 22759389.
  2. Bylund, D. B. (January 1, 2013). Lennarz, William J.; Lane, M. Daniel (eds.). Adrenergic Receptors. Waltham: Academic Press. pp. 57–60. ISBN 978-0-12-378631-9.
  3. 3.03.1 Loebel, M; Grabowski, P; Heidecke, H; Bauer, S; Hanitsch, LG; Wittke, K; Meisel, C; Reinke, P; Volk, H; Fluge, Ø; Mella, O; Scheibenbogen, C (2016). "Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Brain, behavior, and immunity. 52: 32-39. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.09.013.
  4. 4.04.14.2 Bynke, Annie; Julin, Per; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Heidecke, Harald; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Bergquist, Jonas (August 1, 2020). "Autoantibodies to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) patients – A validation study in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from two Swedish cohorts". Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health. 7: 100107. doi:10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100107. ISSN 2666-3546.
  5. White, AT; Light, AR; Hughen, RW; Vanhaitsma, TA; Light, KC (2012). "Differences in metabolite-detecting, adrenergic, and immune gene expression after moderate exercise in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, patients with multiple sclerosis, and healthy controls". Psychosomatic Medicine. 74 (1): 46-54. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31824152ed. PMC 3256093.
  6. Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Loebel, Madlen; Freitag, Helma; Krueger, Anne; Bauer, Sandra; Antelmann, Michaela; Doehner, Wolfram; Scherbakov, Nadja; Heidecke, Harald; Reinke, Petra; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Grabowski, Patricia (2018). "Immunoadsorption to remove ß2 adrenergic receptor antibodies in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS/ME". PLoS ONE. 13 (3): e0193672. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193672.
  7. Şen Çakiroğlu, Gözde; Hizmetli, Sami; Siliğ, Yavuz; Karadağ, Ahmet; Hayta, Emrullah; Özaltin, Burcu; Taş, Ayça; Zontul, Cemile (February 7, 2020). "Comparison of Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Between Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Healthy Controls". Archives of Rheumatology. 35 (3): 328–334. doi:10.46497/ArchRheumatol.2020.7602. ISSN 2148-5046. PMC 7788641. PMID 33458655.

β β / Β. Greek letter beta (a symbol used in science), equivalent to "b".

β β / Β. Greek letter beta (a symbol used in science), equivalent to "b".

autoantibody An antibody that works against the body's own antigens, a hallmark of autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies are the opposite of an antibodies.

plasma The liquid part of blood, lymph, or milk after removing any suspended material. Most of the time, "plasma" simply refers to blood, after all the blood cells have been removed. If you also remove the clotting factors, then the plasma is referred to as "serum".

autoantibody An antibody that works against the body's own antigens, a hallmark of autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies are the opposite of an antibodies.

metabolite A chemical compound produced by, or involved in, metabolism. The term is often used to refer to the degradation products of drugs in the body.

antibodies Antibody/immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

antibodies Antibody/immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

antibodies Antibody/immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

autoantibody An antibody that works against the body's own antigens, a hallmark of autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies are the opposite of an antibodies.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (M.E.) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

somatic symptom disorder A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.