Melatonin is a hormone produced in the pineal gland which regulates sleep and wakefulness. It is involved in the synchronization of circadian rhythms, including sleep-wake timing, blood pressure and body temperature regulation, cardiovascular efficiency and muscle strength, and many others. Many of its biological effects are produced through activation of melatonin receptors, while others are due to its role as an antioxidant, with a particular role in the protection of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 2016, Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma lipid hydroperoxides, homocysteine concentration and chronic fatigue syndrome in multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferons-beta and mitoxantrone.
- 1996, Dissociation of body-temperature and melatonin secretion circadian rhythms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome
Costs and availability[edit | edit source]
In Canada and the United States, melatonin is sold over-the-counter. In other countries, such as the United Kingdom, it is only available with a prescription but may be legal to import for personal use.
Learn more[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Hardeland R, Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP (March 2006), "Melatonin", The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 38 (3): 313–6, doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.08.020, PMID 16219483
- Altun A, Ugur-Altun B (May 2007), "Melatonin: therapeutic and clinical utilization", Int. J. Clin. Pract., 61 (5): 835–45, doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.01191.x, PMID 17298593
- Boutin JA, Audinot V, Ferry G, Delagrange P (August 2005), "Molecular tools to study melatonin pathways and actions", Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 26 (8): 412–19, doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.06.006, PMID 15992934
- Hardeland R (July 2005), "Antioxidative protection by melatonin: multiplicity of mechanisms from radical detoxification to radical avoidance", Endocrine, 27 (2): 119–30, doi:10.1385/ENDO:27:2:119, PMID 16217125
- Reiter RJ, Acuña-Castroviejo D, Tan DX, Burkhardt S (June 2001), "Free radical-mediated molecular damage. Mechanisms for the protective actions of melatonin in the central nervous system", Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 939: 200–15, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb03627.x, PMID 11462772
- Brasure M, MacDonald R, Fuchs E, Olson CM, Carlyle M, Diem S, Koffel E, Khawaja IS, Ouellette J, Butler M, Kane RL, Wilt TJ (December 2015), Management of Insomnia Disorder [Internet], PMID 26844312
- Adamczyk-Sowa, M.; Sowa, P.; Adamczyk, J.; Niedziela, N.; Misiolek, H.; Owczarek, M.; Zwirska-Korczala, K. (April 2016), "Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma lipid hydroperoxides, homocysteine concentration and chronic fatigue syndrome in multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferons-beta and mitoxantrone", Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society, 67 (2): 235–242, ISSN 1899-1505, PMID 27226183
- Williams, G.; Pirmohamed, J.; Minors, D.; Waterhouse, J.; Buchan, I.; Arendt, J.; Edwards, R. H. (July 1996), "Dissociation of body-temperature and melatonin secretion circadian rhythms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome", Clinical Physiology (Oxford, England), 16 (4): 327–337, ISSN 0144-5979, PMID 8842569
mitochondria - Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.
central nervous system (CNS) - One of the two parts of the human nervous system, the other part being the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that travel from the central nervous system into the various organs and tissues of the body.
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A controversial term, invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, that generally refers to a collection of symptoms as “fatigue”. There have been multiple attempts to come up with a set of diagnostic criteria to define this term, but few of those diagnostic criteria are currently in use. Previous attempts to define this term include the Fukuda criteria and the Oxford criteria. Some view the term as a useful diagnostic category for people with long-term fatigue of unexplained origin. Others view the term as a derogatory term borne out of animus towards patients. Some view the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, while others view myalgic encephalomyelitis as a distinct disease.