HPV vaccine

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HPV vaccines have been developed to protect again human papillomavirus infection. HPV refers to a very large group of viruses, and some of these, including HPV 16 and HPV 18, cause cervical cancer or other serious illness.[1] The recent use of different HPV vaccines has led to a number of studies looking at HPV vaccine safety, including whether any of the HPV vaccines may increase the risk of developing ME/CFS.[1]

Types[edit | edit source]

A number of different vaccines are in use, with bivalent vaccines protecting against two types of HPV, and quadrivalent vaccines protecting against four types of HPV:

  • Bivalent: Ceravix which protects against HPV 16 and HPV 18 only, and contains aluminum hydroxide and monophosphoryl lipid[2]
  • Quadrivalent: Gardasil which protects against HPV 6 and 11, plus HPV 16 and 18, and contains amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate. This is the vaccine currently used in the UK.[3][4]
  • Nonavalent: Gardasil-9, which protects against 9 types of HPV: HPV 6 and 11, HPV 16 and 18, plus HPV 31, HPV 33, HPV 45, HPV 52, and HPV 58, and contains a larger amount of aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate and more than twice as many virus-like particles than the quadrivalent vaccine.[5][6] Gardasil-9 was approved for use in the United States in 2014.[6]

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Feiring et al. (2007) conducted a national study in Norway covering 6 birth cohorts, and found that CFS/ME was not associated with HPV vaccination in girls, but medical history was associated with a higher number of girls developing CFS/ME within 2 years of HPV vaccine, and lower uptake of HPV vaccination.[5] They commented that ages 10-19 and 30-39 had the highest incidence of CFS/ME.

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

  • 2007, HPV vaccination and risk of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a nationwide register-based study from Norway[7] - (Full text) - quadrivalent vaccine
  • 2013, Bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine and the risk of fatigue syndromes in girls in the UK[8] - (Full text) - bivalent vaccine
  • 2014, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia With Chronic Fatigue After HPV Vaccination as Part of the “Autoimmune/Auto-inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants”: Case Report and Literature Review[9] - (Full text)
  • 2015, Is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis a Relevant Diagnosis in Patients with Suspected Side Effects to Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine?[10] - (Full text) - quadrivalent vaccine
  • 2018, Autonomic dysfunction and HPV immunization: an overview[5] - (Full text) - all types of vaccine

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.01.1 "Information About the Human Papillomavirus (HPV)". WebMD. Retrieved May 10, 2020. 
  2. National Cancer Institute (Oct 8, 2019). "Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines". www.cancer.gov. Retrieved May 10, 2020. 
  3. National Health Service (Jul 31, 2019). "HPV vaccine overview". nhs.uk. Retrieved May 10, 2020. 
  4. Electronic Medicines Compendium (May 7, 2019). "Gardasil suspension for injection - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (emc)". emc-prod-wa.azurewebsites.net. Retrieved May 10, 2020. 
  5. 5.05.15.2 Blitshteyn, Svetlana; Brinth, Louise; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.; Martinez-Lavin, Manuel (Dec 2018). "Autonomic dysfunction and HPV immunization: an overview". Immunologic Research. 66 (6): 744–754. doi:10.1007/s12026-018-9036-1. ISSN 1559-0755. PMID 30478703. 
  6. 6.06.1 Centers for Disease Control. "Use of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: Updated HPV Vaccination Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved May 10, 2020. 
  7. Feiring, Berit; Laake, Ida; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Greve-Isdahl, Margrethe; Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Håberg, Siri E.; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill (Jul 24, 2017). "HPV vaccination and risk of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: A nationwide register-based study from Norway". Vaccine. 35 (33): 4203–4212. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.031. ISSN 0264-410X. 
  8. Donegan, Katherine; Beau-Lejdstrom, Raphaelle; King, Bridget; Seabroke, Suzie; Thomson, Andrew; Bryan, Philip (Oct 9, 2013). "Bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine and the risk of fatigue syndromes in girls in the UK". Vaccine. 31 (43): 4961–4967. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.024. ISSN 0264-410X. 
  9. Tomljenovic, Lucija; Colafrancesco, Serena; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda (Jan 1, 2014). "Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia With Chronic Fatigue After HPV Vaccination as Part of the "Autoimmune/Auto-inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants": Case Report and Literature Review". Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports. 2 (1): 2324709614527812. doi:10.1177/2324709614527812. ISSN 2324-7096. PMC 4528866Freely accessible. PMID 26425598. 
  10. Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Hoppe, Anna AG; Badreldin, Iman; Mehlsen, Jesper (Jun 15, 2015). "Is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis a Relevant Diagnosis in Patients with Suspected Side Effects to Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine?" (PDF). International Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination. 1 (1): 00003. doi:10.15406/ijvv.2015.01.00003. ISSN 2470-9980. 

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

tachycardia - An unusually rapid heart beat. Can be caused by exercise or illness. A symptom of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). (Learn more: www.heart.org)

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

adverse reaction - Any unintended or unwanted response to the treatment under investigation in a clinical trial.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a U.S. government agency dedicated to epidemiology and public health. It operates under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.