Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid; it is a precursor to melanin which darkens skin, dopa, which is converted to the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine). Tyrosine is converted to l-dopa by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Dopamine is important for both pleasure and motivation, and both noradrenaline and adrenaline have a key role in the fight or flight response of the sympathetic nervous system, which is activated by emotional or physical arousal.
Sources[edit | edit source]
Tyrosine and its precursor phenylalanine are required for the synthesis of coenzyme Q10. People with the genetic condition phenylketonuria (PKU) need tyrosine supplements because they are unable to convert phenylalanine into tyrosine.
ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
Evidence[edit | edit source]
Two studies of healthy adults have found that tyrosine supplements moderately increased cognitive performance and mental status after prolonged periods without sleep and under intensive military training.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
- Adrenaline (epinephrine)
- Fatty acid hypothesis
- Fight or flight response
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- Tyrosine - PubChem
References[edit | edit source]
- PubChem. "Tyrosine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
- van der Poll, MCG; Luiking, YC; Dejong, CHC; Soeters, PB (September 2, 2009). "Amino Acids". In Caballero, Benjamin (ed.). Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Oxford, UK: Academic Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-12-375661-9.
- Georgiades, Evelina; Behan, Wilhelmina M. H.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Hadjicharalambous, Marios; Mackie, Eileen E.; Wilson, John; Ward, Susan A.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P. (August 2003). "Chronic fatigue syndrome: new evidence for a central fatigue disorder". Clinical Science (London, England: 1979). 105 (2): 213–218. doi:10.1042/CS20020354. ISSN 0143-5221. PMID 12708966.
- Jones, Mark G.; Cooper, Elizabeth; Amjad, Saira; Goodwin, C. Stewart; Barron, Jeffrey L.; Chalmers, Ronald A. (November 1, 2005). "Urinary and plasma organic acids and amino acids in chronic fatigue syndrome". Clinica Chimica Acta. 361 (1): 150–158. doi:10.1016/j.cccn.2005.05.023. ISSN 0009-8981.
enzyme a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.