Amino acid

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history
Jump to: navigation, search

Amino acids are organic compounds comprise mainly from the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. Because of their biological significance, amino acids are important in nutrition and are commonly used in nutritional supplements, fertilizers, and food technology. Industrial uses include the production of drugs, biodegradable plastics, and chiral catalysts.

Types[edit | edit source]

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): leucine, isoleucine and valine

Long neutral amino acids (LNNAs): tyrosine, tryptophan, threonine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine and phenylalanine

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Several studios have altered serum levels of amino acids in ME/CFS patients, including reduced branch chain amino acid intermediates[1] (i.e., 2-Hydoxyisocaproic acid (HICA)), reduced levels of BCCAs and LNNAs during exhaustion[2] and reduced levels of long chain amino acids (LNAAs) during recovery.[2] One study found reduced urinary BCCA excretion.[3]

Plasma amino acids in ME/CFS patients relative to healthy controls
Amino acid Georgiades et al (2003)[2] Jones et al (2005)[4] Armstrong et al. (2012)[5]
b -alanine
Aspartate
Glutamate
Asparagine
Hydroxyproline
Serine
Glycine
Glutamine Reduced
Taurine Reduced
Histidine Reduced Reduced
Citrulline
Threonine
Alanine
Arginine
Proline
a-aminobutyric acid Reduced
Tyrosine Reduced (at rest, exercise, exhaustion, recovery) Reduced
Branched chain amino acids Reduced (exhaustion)
Long neutral amino acids Reduced (exhaustion, recovery)
Isoleucine
Valine
Leucine
Methionine
Cystine
b-amino-isobutyric acid
Phenylalanine
Ornithine Reduced
Lysine
Urinary amino acids in ME/CFS patients relative to healthy controls
Amino acid Jones et al (2005)[4] Niblet et al (2007)[3]
b -alanine Reduced
Aspartate
Glutamate
Asparagine Reduced
Hydroxyproline Reduced
Serine
Glycine
Glutamine
Taurine
Histidine Reduced Increased
Citrulline
Threonine
Alanine
Arginine
Proline
a-aminobutyric acid
Tyrosine Increased
Valine
Methionine Reduced
Cystine Reduced
Isoleucine
Leucine
b-amino-isobutyric acid
Phenylalanine Reduced Reduced
Ornithine
Lysine
Branched chain amino acids Reduced

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Naviaux, Robert K.; Naviaux, Jane C.; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A. Taylor; Alaynick, William A.; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne (Aug 29, 2016). "Metabolic features of chronic fatigue syndrome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (37): E5472–E5480. doi:10.1073/pnas.1607571113. ISSN 0027-8424. 
  2. 2.02.12.2 Georgiades, Evelina; Behan, Wilhelmina M. H.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Hadjicharalambous, Marios; Mackie, Eileen E.; Wilson, John; Ward, Susan A.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P. (Aug 2003). "Chronic fatigue syndrome: new evidence for a central fatigue disorder". Clinical Science (London, England: 1979). 105 (2): 213–218. doi:10.1042/CS20020354. ISSN 0143-5221. PMID 12708966. 
  3. 3.03.1 Niblett, Suzanne H.; King, Katrina E.; Dunstan, R. Hugh; Clifton-Bligh, Phillip; Hoskin, Leigh A.; Roberts, Timothy K.; Fulcher, Greg R.; McGregor, Neil R.; Dunsmore, Julie C. (Sep 1, 2007). "Hematologic and Urinary Excretion Anomalies in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 232 (8): 1041–1049. doi:10.3181/0702-RM-44. ISSN 1535-3702. 
  4. 4.04.1 Jones, Mark G.; Cooper, Elizabeth; Amjad, Saira; Goodwin, C. Stewart; Barron, Jeffrey L.; Chalmers, Ronald A. (Nov 1, 2005). "Urinary and plasma organic acids and amino acids in chronic fatigue syndrome". Clinica Chimica Acta. 361 (1): 150–158. doi:10.1016/j.cccn.2005.05.023. ISSN 0009-8981. 
  5. {{Cite journal|last1=Armstrong|first1=Christopher W.|authorlink1=Christopher Armstrong|last2=McGregor|first2=Neil R.|authorlink2=Neil McGregor|last3=Sheedy|first3=John R.|authorlink3=|last4= Buttfield|first4=Ianauthorlink4=|last5=Butt|first5=Henry L.|authorlink5=Henry Butt|last6=Gooley|first6=Paul R.|authorlink6=Paul Gooley|title=NMR metabolic profiling of serum identifies amino acid disturbances in chronic fatigue syndrome|journal= Clinica Chimica Acta|volume=413|issue=19–20|page=1525–1531|date=2012|doi=10.1016/j.cca.2012.06.022}

Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome, often used when both illnesses are considered the same.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.