Toll-like receptor 4

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history

TLR4 or TLR-4 or toll-like receptor 4 is one of ten toll-like receptors.[1]

Function[edit | edit source]

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

TLR4 is upregulated in ME/CFS patients.[2][3]

Infection[edit | edit source]

Coxsackie B4 triggers TLR4 on human pancreatic cells,[4] TLR4 knock-out mice infected with Coxsackie B3 showed reduced myocarditis and viral replication.[5]

Potential treatments[edit | edit source]

Low dose naltrexone (LDN), lithium, and oxymatrine inhibit microglial activation via TLR4.[6][7]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

  • 2009, A gene signature for post-Infectious chronic fatigue syndrome[2] (Full Text)
  • 2009, Moderate Exercise Increases Expression for Sensory, Adrenergic, and Immune Genes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients But Not in Normal Subjects[3] (Full Text)

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Nie, Li; Cai, Shi-Yu; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Jiong (2018). "Toll-Like Receptors, Associated Biological Roles, and Signaling Networks in Non-Mammals". Frontiers in Immunology. 9. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01523. ISSN 1664-3224. PMC 6043800. PMID 30034391.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Gow, John W.; Hagan, Suzanne; Herzyk, Pawel; Cannon, Celia; Behan, Peter O.; Chaudhuri, Abhijit (June 25, 2009). "A gene signature for post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome". BMC Medical Genomics. 2 (1): 38. doi:10.1186/1755-8794-2-38. ISSN 1755-8794.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Light, A.R.; White, A.T.; Hughen, R.W.; Light, K.C. (2009). "Moderate Exercise Increases Expression for Sensory, Adrenergic, and Immune Genes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients But Not in Normal Subjects". The Journal of Pain. 10: 1099–1112. PMC 2757484.
  4. Triantafilou, Kathy; Triantafilou, Martha (October 2004). "Coxsackievirus B4-induced cytokine production in pancreatic cells is mediated through toll-like receptor 4". Journal of Virology. 78 (20): 11313–11320. doi:10.1128/JVI.78.20.11313-11320.2004. ISSN 0022-538X. PMID 15452251.
  5. Fairweather, DeLisa; Yusung, Susan; Frisancho, Sylvia; Barrett, Masheka; Gatewood, Shannon; Steele, Ronelle; Rose, Noel R. (May 1, 2003). "IL-12 receptor beta 1 and Toll-like receptor 4 increase IL-1 beta- and IL-18-associated myocarditis and coxsackievirus replication". Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950). 170 (9): 4731–4737. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.170.9.4731. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 12707353.
  6. Dong, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiang; Dai, Xiaonan; Lu, Shunmei; Gui, Bo; Jin, Wenjie; Zhang, Susu; Zhang, Shu; Qian, Yanning (August 14, 2014). "Lithium ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation via inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 expression by activating the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 pathway". Journal of Neuroinflammation. 11: 140. doi:10.1186/s12974-014-0140-4. ISSN 1742-2094. PMC 4149204. PMID 25115727.
  7. Fan, Hongguang; Li, Litao; Zhang, Xiangjian; Liu, Ying; Yang, Chenhui; Yang, Yi; Yin, Jing (2009). "Oxymatrine downregulates TLR4, TLR2, MyD88, and NF-kappaB and protects rat brains against focal ischemia". Mediators of Inflammation. 2009: 704706. doi:10.1155/2009/704706. ISSN 1466-1861. PMC 2825667. PMID 20182634.