Lyme disease

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Lyme Disease is caused by borrelia burgdorferi, a pathogen transmitted by the black legged tick.[1] It is treatable but can become chronic lyme disease. A bulls-eye rash can appear at the site of a deer tick bite but can be in different forms[2] while some people never recall having a rash; 30% of lyme patients never get a rash.[3]


 Symptoms[edit | edit source]

The signs and symptoms of lyme disease vary and usually appear in stages.[4]

Classic bulls-eye rash from the bite of a deer tick

Early Signs and Symptoms

  • Bull's eye rash (Rash can be in other forms and 30% of the time no rash is present.)[5][6]
  • Flu-like symptoms

Later Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms may also include

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diffuse rashes (rather than a single bull's-eye rash commonly associated with Lyme disease)[5]See: Images

Less Common Signs and Symptoms

  • Heart problems, such as irregular heartbeat.
  • Eye inflammation
  • Liver inflammation (hepatitis).
  • Severe fatigue[8]

Treatment[edit | edit source]

Patients treated with appropriate antibiotics in the early stages of Lyme disease usually recover rapidly and completely. Antibiotics commonly used for oral treatment include doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime axetil. Patients with certain neurological or cardiac forms of illness may require intravenous treatment with drugs such as ceftriaxone or penicillin.[9]

Notable research[edit | edit source]

Spirochete, or “corkscrew-shaped” bacteria known as Borrelia burgdorferi

Multiple pathogens[edit | edit source]

Pathobiome Paradigm[edit | edit source]

  • 2015, Some future research will focus on a spectrum of pathogens instead of a "one pathogen-one disease" vision.[15]

United States Congressional Report[edit | edit source]

Articles[edit | edit source]

 Blood and other laboratory tests[edit | edit source]

United States[edit | edit source]

United Kingdom[edit | edit source]

  • BBC1 Lyme Disease Discussion - Some patients have waited up to 30 years for a correct diagnosis. National Health Service (NHS) services have only correctly identified the disease in a quarter of the patients. The blood tests are unreliable and often come back negative. The development of an accurate blood test is in need of research funding.[23]

False positives[edit | edit source]

Several herpesviruses including varicella zoster virus[25][26], cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus,[27] and HSV-2[28] may cause false positives on Lyme Disease tests.

News media on unapproved tests[edit | edit source]

  • 2005, Unproved Lyme Disease Tests Prompt Warnings[29]
  • 2013, Many tests to diagnose Lyme, but no proof they work[30]
  • 2013, Lyme Culture Test Causes Uproar[31]
  • 2014, Federal Loopholes Compromise Lyme Disease Testing[32]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention". WebMD. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  2. "Does Everyone Get the Telltale Bullseye Rash? | Bay Area Lyme Foundation". Bay Area Lyme Foundation. September 12, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  3. "Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention". WebMD. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  4. "Lyme disease - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  5. 5.05.1 "Does Everyone Get the Telltale Bullseye Rash? | Bay Area Lyme Foundation". Bay Area Lyme Foundation. September 12, 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  6. "Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention". WebMD. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  7. "Lyme Disease (Erythema-Migrans) Picture Image on MedicineNet.com". MedicineNet. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  8. "Lyme disease - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  9. "Treatment | Lyme Disease | CDC". Centers for Disease Control. December 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  10. Wormser, Gary P.; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Halperin, John J.; Steere, Allen C.; Klempner, Mark S.; Krause, Peter J.; Bakken, Johan S.; Strle, Franc (November 1, 2006). "The Clinical Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Lyme Disease, Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 43 (9): 1089–1134. doi:10.1086/508667. ISSN 1537-6591.
  11. "Quirky Lyme disease bacteria: Unlike most organisms, they don't need iron, but crave manganese". ScienceDaily. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. March 21, 2013. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  12. "Ticks that transmit Lyme disease reported in nearly half of all US counties". ScienceDaily. Entomological Society of America. January 18, 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  13. Kurtzman, Laura (February 12, 2016). "Gene Signature Could Lead To A New Way Of Diagnosing Lyme". UC San Francisco. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  14. "Researchers identify new Borrelia species that causes Lyme disease: Until now, Borrelia burgdorferi was only species believed to cause Lyme disease in North America". ScienceDaily. February 8, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  15. Vayssier-Taussat, M; Kazimirova, M; Hubalek, Z; Hornok, S; Farkas, R; Cosson, JF; Bonnet, S; Vourch, G; Gasqui, P; Mihalca, AD; Plantard, O; Silaghi, C; Cutler, S; Rizzlo, A (November 19, 2015), "Emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the 'one pathogen-one disease' vision to the pathobiome paradigm", Future Microbiol, 10 (12): 2033-43, doi:10.2217/fmb.15.114, PMID 26610021
  16. Aucott, John N; Honey, Kristen T; Adams, Wendy; Beard, Charles Benjamin; Cooper, Captain Scott; Dixon, Dennis; Horowitz, Richard; Jones, Captain Estella; Nigrovic, Lisa E (2018). "Tick-Borne Disease Working Group - 2018 Report to Congress" (PDF). drive.google.com. Allen Richards; Robert Sabatino; Vanila Singh; Patricia Smith; Robert Smith. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  17. Ambrose, Melenie (April 22, 2014). "Lyme disease — a ticking timebomb". PerthNow. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  18. "How I was floored by a tick". BBC News. July 31, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  19. "Two-step Laboratory Testing Process| Lyme Disease | CDC". Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  20. "Types of Lyme Disease Tests". lymediseaseguide.org. May 27, 2011. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  21. "Laboratory tests that are not recommended| Lyme Disease | CDC". Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  22. Carino, Jerry (November 16, 2018). "Tests for Lyme disease don't work well enough to diagnose illness early, federal panel says". USA TODAY. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  23. Loukas, Demetrios (February 27, 2016). "BBC1 Lyme Disease 27.02.2016". YouTube. Katherine Allman.
  24. Donaldson, Liam (2009). "Testing for Lyme Disease" (PDF). webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk (PDF). p. 4.
  25. Feder, HM Jr; Gerber, MA; Luger, SW; Ryan, RW (December 1991), "False-positive serologic tests for Lyme disease after varicella infection", N Engl J Med, 325 (26): 1886-7, PMID 1961232
  26. Woelfle, J; Wilske, B; Haverkamp, F; Bialek, R (November 1998), "False-positive serological tests for Lyme disease in facial palsy and varicella zoster meningo-encephalitis", Eur J Pediatr, 157 (1): 953-4, PMID 9835449
  27. Goossens, HA; Nohlmans, MK; van den Bogaard, AE (May 1999), "Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections cause false-positive results in IgM two-test protocol for early Lyme borreliosis", Infection, 27 (3): 231, PMID 10378140
  28. Strasfeld, L; Romanzi, L; Seder, RH; Berardi, VP (2005), "False-Positive Serological Test Results for Lyme Disease in a Patient with Acute Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2", Clin Infect Dis, 41 (12): 1826-1827, doi:10.1086/498319, PMID 16288417
  29. Santora, Dan Hurley and Marc. "Unproved Lyme Disease Tests Prompt Warnings". Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  30. Daley, Beth (October 21, 2013). "Many tests to diagnose Lyme, but no proof they do - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  31. Lyme Culture Test Causes Uproar. "Medscape Log In" (Login Needed). www.medscape.com. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  32. Daley, Beth (June 17, 2014). "Federal Loopholes Compromise Lyme Disease Testing". WGBH 89.7. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  33. "Deer Tick | National Geographic". April 11, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  34. "Lyme Disease". Columbia-lyme.org. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  35. "Lyme Disease". blausen.com. November 17, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  36. Paules, Catharine I.; Marston, Hilary D.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Fauci, Anthony S. (July 25, 2018). "Tickborne Diseases — Confronting a Growing Threat | NEJM". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/nejmp1807870#.w4x9xybx_qg.twitter.

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From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.