Complement C4a or complement component 4a is a glycoprotein and peptide that is expressed, primarily in the liver and in macrophages, in response to acute inflammation or tissue injury. Complement C4a is part of the Complement C4 family.
ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
A significant correlation was found [in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients] between the increase in C4a and total symptom score (P < .05) and the following individual symptoms: headaches (P < .02), joint problems (P < .05), and thinking difficulty (P < .03), through the use of 1-sided tests. — Sorensen et al, 2003
Nijs et al. (2010) found a strong relation between the change in complement C4a level and an increase in post-exertional pain and fatigue in ME/CFS patients. Previously, complement C4a, in combination with other proteins, was being considered as a potential diagnostic biomarker of post-exertional malaise in ME/CFS.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 2003, Complement activation in a model of chronic fatigue syndrome - (Abstract)
- 2009, Transcriptional Control of Complement Activation in an Exercise Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - (Full text)
- 2010, Unravelling the nature of postexertional malaise in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: the role of elastase, complement C4a and interleukin-1β - (Abstract)
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "Complement C4a MeSH Descriptor Data 2022 | MeSH Browser". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
- Behairy, Behairy E.; El-Mashad, Ghada M.; Abd-Elghany, Ragab S.; Ghoneim, Enas M.; Sira, Mostafa M. (August 27, 2013). "Serum complement C4a and its relation to liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis C". World Journal of Hepatology. 5 (8): 445–451. doi:10.4254/wjh.v5.i8.445.
- Klos, Andreas; Tenner, Andrea J.; Johswich, Kay-Ole; Ager, Rahasson R.; Reis, Edimara S.; Köhl, Jörg (September 2009). "The Role of the Anaphylatoxins in Health and Disease". Molecular immunology. 46 (14): 2753–2766. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2009.04.027. ISSN 0161-5890. PMC 2725201. PMID 19477527.
- Sorensen, Bristol; Streib, Joanne E.; Strand, Matthew; Make, Barry; Giclas, Patricia C.; Fleshner, Monika; Jones, James F. (August 2003). "Complement activation in a model of chronic fatigue syndrome". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 112 (2): 397–403. doi:10.1067/mai.2003.1615. ISSN 0091-6749. PMID 12897748.
- Nijs, J.; Van Oosterwijck, J.; Meeus, M.; Lambrecht, L.; Metzger, K.; Frémont, M.; Paul, L. (2010). "Unravelling the nature of postexertional malaise in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: the role of elastase, complement C4a and interleukin-1β". Journal of Internal Medicine. 267 (4): 418–435. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2009.02178.x. ISSN 1365-2796.
- Sorensen, Bristol; Jones, James F; Vernon, Suzanne D; Rajeevan, Mangalathu S (January 2009). "Transcriptional Control of Complement Activation in an Exercise Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Molecular Medicine. 15 (1–2): 34–42. doi:10.2119/molmed.2008.00098. PMC 2583111. PMID 19015737.
post-exertional malaise (PEM) - A notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small physical or cognitive exertions. PEM may be referred to as a "crash" or "collapse" and can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain, trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, and others.