Streptococcus

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Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive bacterium[1][2] belonging to the phylum firmicutes and the order lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria). Streptococcus is a d-lactic acid producing bacteria. Excessive production of d-lactic acid can lead to lactic acidosis.[citation needed]

Strep throat is caused by streptococcus.[3]

D-Lactic Acidosis[edit | edit source]

Streptococcus and Enterococcus are two aerobic Gram positive intestinal bacteria that produce D-lactate. Elevated levels of D-lactic acid can lead to Lactic acidosis, characterized by the buildup of lactic acid in the bloodstream.[3][4]

D-lactic acid bacteria linked to CFS symptoms[edit | edit source]

In a 2009 study, a significant increase of Gram positive facultative anaerobic faecal microorganisms were found in 108 CFS patients as compared to 177 control subjects, including Enterococcos faecalis and Streptococcus sanguinis.[4]

Results suggest that when Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. colonization in the intestinal tract is increased, the resulting excess D-lactic acid alters the pH and gut integrity, allowing the acid into the body. This in turn could explain neurocognitive and mitochondrial dysfunction symptoms in ME/CFS. [5]

In a 2018 study, antibiotic treatment was used to target the overgrowth of Streptococcus bacteria found in microbiota of ME/CFS patients. The idea was based on previous studies linking lactic acidosis and gut dysbiosis with symptoms of ME/CFS. And that d-lactic acid producing bacteria play a large role in both.

Results showed antimicrobial and probiotic treatment yielded concurrent reduction in enteric Streptococcus counts and improvement in some neurological symptoms.[6]

Guttate Psoriasis[edit | edit source]

Guttate psoriasis is a type of psoriasis that shows up on your skin as red, scaly, small, teardrop-shaped spots. Streptococcal infection is one of the most common triggers of guttate psoriasis, specifically group A streptococcus. [7]

In a large 2020 study, CFS patients with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) risk alleles were found to share the following autoimmune diseases, ordered by frequency:[8]

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis/hypothyreosis,
  2. Psoriasis
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis
  4. Alopecia areata
  5. Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis

Streptococcus and EBV Reactivation[edit | edit source]

Group A streptococci activate B cells via TLR2 and can trigger lytic reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in tonsils. [9]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Streptococcal Infections - Infectious Diseases". MSD Manual Professional Edition. Retrieved Aug 23, 2020. 
  2. Patterson, Maria Jevitz (1996). Baron, Samuel, ed. "Streptococcus". Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2. PMID 21413248. 
  3. 3.03.1 "Group A Strep | Strep Throat | For Clinicians | GAS | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Apr 19, 2019. Retrieved Aug 21, 2020. 
  4. 4.04.1 Sheedy, John R.; Wettenhall, Richard E. H.; Scanlon, Denis; Gooley, Paul R.; Lewis, Donald P.; Mcgregor, Neil; Stapleton, David I.; Butt, Henry L.; Meirleir, Kenny L. De (Jul 1, 2009). "Increased D-Lactic Acid Intestinal Bacteria in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". In Vivo. 23 (4): 621–628. ISSN 0258-851X. PMID 19567398. 
  5. Sheedy, John R.; Wettenhall, Richard E. H.; Scanlon, Denis; Gooley, Paul R.; Lewis, Donald P.; Mcgregor, Neil; Stapleton, David I.; Butt, Henry L.; Meirleir, Kenny L. De (Jul 1, 2009). "Increased D-Lactic Acid Intestinal Bacteria in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". In Vivo. 23 (4): 621–628. ISSN 0258-851X. PMID 19567398. 
  6. Wallis, Amy; Ball, Michelle; Butt, Henry; Lewis, Donald P.; McKechnie, Sandra; Paull, Phillip; Jaa-Kwee, Amber; Bruck, Dorothy (Feb 6, 2018). "Open-label pilot for treatment targeting gut dysbiosis in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: neuropsychological symptoms and sex comparisons". Journal of Translational Medicine. 16 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/s12967-018-1392-z. ISSN 1479-5876. PMC 5801817Freely accessible. PMID 29409505. 
  7. "Guttate psoriasis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved Aug 21, 2020. 
  8. Lande, Asgeir; Fluge, Øystein; Strand, Elin B.; Flåm, Siri T.; Sosa, Daysi D.; Mella, Olav; Egeland, Torstein; Saugstad, Ola D.; Lie, Benedicte A. (Mar 24, 2020). "Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles associated with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62157-x. ISSN 2045-2322. 
  9. Ueda, Seigo; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Azzi, Tarik; Gysin, Claudine; Berger, Christoph; Bernasconi, Michele; Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Nadal, David (Jan 15, 2014). "Oropharyngeal Group A Streptococcal Colonization Disrupts Latent Epstein-Barr Virus Infection". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 209 (2): 255–264. doi:10.1093/infdis/jit428. ISSN 0022-1899. 

mitochondria - Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

human leukocyte antigen complex (HLA) - A set of genes responsible for a given person's immune response to potential threats. Specifically, HLA genes encode proteins which help the immune system to distinguish the body's own proteins from proteins which are made by foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses. The HLA complex can vary greatly from person to person, generating unique immune and allergic responses. (Learn more: mecfsresearchreview.me)

B cell - B lymphocyte, or a type of white blood cell, which is involved in the immune response by secreting antibodies to ward off infections. In mammals, they are mostly matured in the bone marrow.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.