Portal:Energy metabolism/Selected article

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These are selected articles related to the energy metabolism which appear on Portal:Energy metabolism.




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A single cellular mitochondrion
Mitochondria are organelles found in all cells that have a nucleus. In the human body, that would be all cells except red blood cells. They generate most of a cell's energy by manufacturing adenosine triphosphate, ATP. Mitochondria have their own independent genome called mitochondrial DNA. (more...)



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Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a worsening of many ME/CFS symptoms as a result of physical or mental exertion. Patients, ME/CFS organizatons, clinicians and researchers that work in the ME/CFS field often referred to it as "the marker," i.e., the main symptom that differentiates ME and CFS from other fatiguing illnesses. PEM can last for days to weeks after the exertion. (more...)



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The Citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle/TCA cycle is a series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions that form a key part of aerobic respiration in cells. This work takes place inside the mitochondria. (more...)



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The Energy Envelope Theory is a self-management tool to reduce symptom severity and the frequency of relapses. This theory suggests that because variations in day-to-day energy levels are often unpredictable in people with ME/CFS, they are to assess their perceived energy levels on a daily basis (or in smaller time increments, as needed) and use that level to gauge their energy expenditure for the day. It encourages people with ME/CFS to accept their daily energy limitations and not exceed or fight them. (more...)



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Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is an enzyme that is part of the citric acid cycle. It catalyzes the reaction that transforms pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, a process called pyruvate decarboxylation. A large study by Fluge and Mella of 200 patients meeting the Canadian Consensus Criteria and 102 controls found a pattern of amino acids that suggested functional impairment of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), supported by increased mRNA expression of the inhibitory PDH kinases 1, 2, and 4; sirtuin 4; and PPARδ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both sexes. (more...)



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Two-day cardiopulmonary exercise testing or 2-day CPET is a of post-exertional malaise (PEM), one of the cardinal symptoms that distinguishes between individuals with and without ME/CFS. The hypothesis is that ME/CFS patients are almost unique in having a severe deterioration in the second of the two cardiopulmonary exercise tests performed on consecutive days. The test is also frequently used in research to compare outcomes pre- and post- exercise. (more...)



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ME/CFS is marked by a significant decrease in the ability to sustain exercise and, often, to engage in it altogether. Exercise induces abnormal gene expression, bacterial translocation, lactic acid build-up, and oxidative impairment in patients. (more...)



mitochondria - Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.

mitochondria - Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.

genome - an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes

post-exertional malaise (PEM) - A notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small physical or cognitive exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others.

post-exertional malaise (PEM) - A notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small physical or cognitive exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others.

enzyme - a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.

Energy Envelope Theory - A self-management tool developed and tested by Dr. Leonard Jason to reduce symptom severity and the frequency of relapses for people with ME/CFS. According to this theory, ME/CFS patients should not expend more energy than they perceive they have, as this results in post-exertional malaise and higher disability. Instead patients are advised to stay within their energy envelope, meaning the physical limits the disease has imposed upon them. As the energy envelope theory also cautions about the dangers of under-exertion, its principles are almost identical to ‘pacing’, an activity management strategy for ME patients devised by Ellen Goudsmit in the UK.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.