Adenosine triphosphate

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecule

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the molecule that supplies and stores energy needed for biochemical reactions in all cell processes. It is commonly referred to as the energy currency of cells.[1] The cell manufactures most of the ATP needed in the mitochondria, however some ATP is manufactured in a less efficient and, usually, smaller amount in the cytoplasm.[2]

Studies examining ATP production in ME/CFS cohorts have produced divergent conclusions. Several studies, such as Myhill, 2013, and Castro-Marrero, 2013, have found reduced concentrations of ATP in the blood of ME/CFS patients,[3][4] whereas others, such as Smits, 2011, and Vermeulen, 2010, have not detected any changes in ATP production.[5][6] A study by Lawson, 2016, showed an increase in ATP manufactured outside of the mitochondria.[7]

Notable studies related to ME and CFS[edit | edit source]

  • 2016, Elevated Energy Production in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients
    "Abstract: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by physical and mental exhaustion. The underlying pathogenesis is unknown, but impairments in certain mitochondrial functions have been found in some CFS patients. To thoroughly reveal mitochondrial deficiencies in CFS patients, here we examine the key aspects of mitochondrial function in blood cells from a paired CFS patient-control series. Surprisingly, we discover that in patients the ATP levels are higher and mitochondrial cristae are more condensed compared to their paired controls, while the mitochondrial crista length, mitochondrial size, shape, density, membrane potential, and enzymatic activities of the complexes in the electron transport chain remain intact. We further show that the increased ATP largely comes from non-mitochondrial sources. Our results indicate that the fatigue symptom in this cohort of patients is unlikely caused by lack of ATP and severe mitochondrial malfunction. On the contrary, it might be linked to a pathological mechanism by which more ATP is produced by non-mitochondrial sources.[7]
  • 2013, Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in the treatment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) - a clinical audit.[3]
  • 2010, Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome performed worse than controls in a controlled repeated exercise study despite a normal oxidative phosphorylation capacity.[6]

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Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Adenosine_triphosphate
  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/cell-biology/Regulation-of-RNA-after-synthesis#ref313768
  3. 3.03.1 Myhill, S.; Booth, N.E.; McLaren-Howard, J. (2013), "Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in the treatment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) - a clinical audit" (PDF), International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 6 (1): 1-15 
  4. Castro-Marrero, J.; Cordero, M.D.; Sáez-Francas, N.; Jimenez-Gutierrez, C.; Aguilar-Montilla, F.J.; Aliste, L.; Alegre-Martin, J. (2013), "Could mitochondrial dysfunction be a differentiating marker between chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia?", Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 19 (15): 1855-1860, doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5346, PMID 23600892 
  5. Smits, B; van den Heuvel, L; Knoop, H; Küsters, B; Janssen, A; Borm, G; Bleijenberg, G; Rodenburg, R; van Engelen, B (2011), "Mitochondrial enzymes discriminate between mitochondrial disorders and chronic fatigue syndrome", Mitochondrion: 735-738, doi:10.1016/j.mito.2011.05.005, PMID 21664495 
  6. 6.06.1 Vermeulen, R.C.; Kurk, R.M.; Visser, F.C.; Sluiter, W.; Scholte, H.R. (2010), "Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome performed worse than controls in a controlled repeated exercise study despite a normal oxidative phosphorylation capacity", Journal of Translational Medicine, 8 (93), doi:10.1186/1479-5876-8-93, PMID 20937116 
  7. 7.07.1 Lawson, Nick; Hsieh, Chung-Han; March, Dana; Wang, Xinnan (2016), "Elevated Energy Production in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients", Journal of Nature and Science, 2 (10) 

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

mitochondria - Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.

membrane - The word "membrane" can have different meanings in different fields of biology. In cell biology, a membrane is a layer of molecules that surround its contents. Examples of cell-biology membranes include the "cell membrane" that surrounds a cell, the "mitochondrial membranes" that form the outer layers of mitochondria, and the "viral envelope" that surrounds enveloped viruses. In anatomy or tissue biology, a membrane is a barrier formed by a layer of cells. Examples of anatomical membranes include the pleural membranes that surrounds the lungs, the pericardium which surrounds the heart, and some of the layers within the blood-brain barrier.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

mitochondria - Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.

enzyme - a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

mitochondria - Important parts of the biological cell, with each mitochondrion encased within a mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are best known for their role in energy production, earning them the nickname "the powerhouse of the cell". Mitochondria also participate in the detection of threats and the response to these threats. One of the responses to threats orchestrated by mitochondria is apoptosis, a cell suicide program used by cells when the threat can not be eliminated.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.