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Encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain by blood-borne immune cells. It is not to be confused with neuroinflammation, which is the modern inflammation of the nervous system by tissue-resident immune cells. Unlike with neuroinflammation, encephalitis is associated with swelling of the brain and can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Viral encephalitis[edit | edit source]
More than 90% of viral encephalitis is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and enteroviruses.
List of all known viruses associated with encephalitis:
- encephalomyelitis virus (Western equine or Eastern equine)
- Ebola virus
- Epstein-Barr virus
- enteroviruses including coxsackieviruses, echo viruses and poliovirus
- flaviviruses, which causes Japanese encephalitis
- herpes simplex
- herpes zoster virus (shingles)
- La Crosse Virus, causing La Crosse or California encephalitis
- lassa virus
- lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
- Murray Valley encephalitis virus
- rabies virus
- Rocio virus
- St. Louis encephalitis virus, a flavivirus
- varicella zoster virus (chickenpox)
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
- West Nile virus
Prevalence[edit | edit source]
Symptom recognition[edit | edit source]
Research[edit | edit source]
In 2020, the Open Medicine Foundation announced a study investigating brain fog in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis, including following those patients over time to see which developed ME/CFS.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
Possible causes[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- Encephalitis - Merck Manuals
- Viral encephalitis - Better Health, Australia
- ICD-11 - World Health Organization
References[edit | edit source]
- "Encephalitis - Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders". MSD Manual Consumer Version. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
- Venkatesan, Arun; Geocadin, Romergryko G. (June 2014). "Diagnosis and management of acute encephalitis". Neurology: Clinical Practice. 4 (3): 206–215. doi:10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000036. ISSN 2163-0402. PMC 4121461. PMID 25110619.
- World Health Organization. "ICD-11 - Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". icd.who.int. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
- World Health Organization. "ICD-11 - Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". International Classification of Diseases. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
- Services, Department of Health & Human. "Viral encephalitis". betterhealth.vic.gov.au. Retrieved July 31, 2020.