Coxsackieviruses are non-enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses from the genus enterovirus, a genus which itself is part of the larger picornavirus family. The enterovirus genus also includes human echoviruses, poliovirus and rhinoviruses. Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens, and ordinarily these viruses are transmitted by the oral-oral or fecal-oral route.
Coxsackieviruses are divided into the Coxsackie A group and the Coxsackie B group. Coxsackie B viruses can sometimes cause persistent non-cytolytic infections, and have been associated with numerous cases of epidemic and sporadicmyalgic encephalomyelitis.
Immune response[edit | edit source]
In a mouse model of myocarditis, coxsackievirus infection was found to upregulate Toll-like receptor 4 on mast cells and macrophages immediately following infection. It also increased numbers of mast cells.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Yin-Murphy, Marguerite; Almond, Jeffrey W. (1996). Baron, Samuel (ed.). Picornaviruses. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2. PMID 21413259.
- "Dermatologic Manifestations of Enteroviral Infections: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology". March 22, 2020.
- Fegan, KG; Behan, PO; Bell, EJ (June 1, 1983), "Myalgic encephalomyelitis — report of an epidemic", J R Coll Gen Pract, 33 (251): 335–337, PMID 6310104
- Calder, BD; Warnock, PJ (January 1984), "Coxsackie B infection in a Scottish general practice", Jrnl Royal Coll Gen Pract, 34 (258): 15–19, PMID 6319691
- Yousef, G.E. (January 1988). "CHRONIC ENTEROVIRUS INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH POSTVIRAL FATIGUE SYNDROME". The Lancet.
- Nairn, C (August 1995). "Comparison of coxsackie B neutralisation and enteroviral PCR in chronic fatigue patients". Journal of Medical Virology.
- Chia, John (November 2005). "The role of enterovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Clinical Pathology.
- Gow, JW. "Enteroviral RNA sequences detected by polymerase chain reaction in muscle of patients with postviral fatigue syndrome". British Medical Journal.
- Fairweather, D (2005). "Viruses as adjuvants for autoimmunity: evidence from Coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis". Rev Med Virol.
enterovirus A genus of RNA viruses which typically enter the body through the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems and sometimes spread to the central nervous system or other parts of the body, causing neurological, cardiac, and other damage. Since the first reports of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), enteroviruses have been suspected as a cause of ME. Enteroviruses have also been implicated as the cause of Type I diabetes, congestive heart failure, and other conditions. Enteroviruses include poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, and many others. New enteroviruses and new strains of existing enteroviruses are continuously being discovered. (Learn more: viralzone.expasy.org)
mouse model The use of special strains of mice to study a human disease or condition, and how to prevent and treat it