Coxsackieviruses are non-enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses from the genus enterovirus, a genus which itself is part of the larger picornavirus family. The Enterovirus genus also includes echovirus, poliovirus and rhinovirus. Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens, and ordinarily these viruses are transmitted by the oral-oral or fecal-oral route.
Coxsackieviruses are divided into the Coxsackie A group and the Coxsackie B group. Coxsackie B viruses can sometimes cause persistent non-cytolytic infections, and have been associated with numerous cases of epidemic and sporadic myalgic encephalomyelitis.
Immune response[edit | edit source]
In a mouse model of myocarditis, Coxsackievirus infection was found to upregulate Toll-like receptor 4 on mast cells and macrophages immediately following infection. It also increased numbers of mast cells.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Fegan, KG; Behan, PO; Bell, EJ (Jun 1, 1983), "Myalgic encephalomyelitis — report of an epidemic", J R Coll Gen Pract, 33 (251): 335–337, PMID 6310104
- Calder, BD; Warnock, PJ (Jan 1984), "Coxsackie B infection in a Scottish general practice", Jrnl Royal Coll Gen Pract, 34 (258): 15–19, PMID 6319691
- Yousef, G.E. (January 1988). "CHRONIC ENTEROVIRUS INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH POSTVIRAL FATIGUE SYNDROME". The Lancet.
- Nairn, C (August 1995). "Comparison of coxsackie B neutralisation and enteroviral PCR in chronic fatigue patients". Journal of Medical Virology.
- Chia, John (November 2005). "The role of enterovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Clinical Pathology.
- Gow, JW. "Enteroviral RNA sequences detected by polymerase chain reaction in muscle of patients with postviral fatigue syndrome". British Medical Journal.
- Fairweather, D (2005). "Viruses as adjuvants for autoimmunity: evidence from Coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis". Rev Med Virol.