Cardiovascular system

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The cardiovascular system, also called the circulatory system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. It also includes includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.

Autonomic nervous system dysfunction resulting in orthostatic intolerance (e.g., postural orthostatic tachycardia and orthostatic hypotension), low blood volume, preload failure and other circulatory issues are all thought to contribute to the symptoms of ME.

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Numerous cardiac abnormalities have been documented in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients.

These include smaller than normal left ventricle of the heart[1][2] and low cardiac output.[3][4]

A 2016 study in the Netherlands was the first to use contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in assessing cardiac involvement in women who have CFS. Twelve women were recruited from a specialised CFS centre who had a diagnosis of CFS based on the Fukuda criteria. Thirty-six age- and gender-matched controls were also included. The conclusions were that in patients with CFS, cardiac magnetic resonance demonstrated lower left ventricle dimensions and a mildly reduced left ventricle function. Heart wall motion abnormalities and the presence of myocardial fibrosis were observed in some CFS patients.[5]

Reduced cardiac volumes have been associated with blood volume, but not length of disease.[6]

A study found that blood volume is a strong physiological correlate of peak oxygen consumption in patients with CFS.[7]

Orthostatic intolerance is also common.[8]

CFS patients have several risk factors for heart disease.[9]

The mean age of death from heart failure of CFS patients is 58.7 years as compared to 83.1 years for the general population.[10]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Miwa K., "Cardiac dysfunction and orthostatic intolerance in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and a small left ventricle" Heart Vessels, July 2015
  2. Hollingsworth K.G "Impaired cardiac function in chronic fatigue syndrome measured using magnetic resonance cardiac tagging" J Intern Med 2012; 271: 264–270.
  3. Miwa K., Fujita M., "Cardiovascular dysfunction with low cardiac output due to a small heart in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome" Intern Med, 2009;48(21):1849-54
  4. Miwa K, Fujita M., "Small Heart With Low Cardiac Output for Orthostatic Intolerance in Patients With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome" Clinical Cardiology, Volume 34, Issue 12, 2011
  5. 5.0 5.1 Olimulder, M.A.G.M.; Galjee, M.A.; Wagenaar, L.J.; van Es, J.; van der Palen, J.; Visser, F.C.; Vermeulen, R.C.W.; von Birgelen, C. (2016), "Chronic fatigue syndrome in women assessed with combined cardiac magnetic resonance imaging", Netherlands Heart Journal, doi:10.1007/s12471-016-0885-8
  6. 6.0 6.1 Blamire, Andrew M.; MacGowan, Guy; Maclachlan, Laura; Hodgson, Tim; Frith, James; Petrides, George; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Newton, Julia L. (June 1, 2016). "Reduced cardiac volumes in chronic fatigue syndrome associate with plasma volume but not length of disease: a cohort study". Open Heart. 3 (1): e000381. doi:10.1136/openhrt-2015-000381. ISSN 2053-3624.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Farquhar, William B.; Hunt, Brian E.; Taylor, J. Andrew; Darling, Stephen E.; Freeman, Roy (January 1, 2002). "Blood volume and its relation to peak O2consumption and physical activity in patients with chronic fatigue". American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 282 (1): H66–H71. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.2002.282.1.H66. ISSN 0363-6135.
  8. Gerwin Morris, Michael Maes, see citations 12 through 27 in "Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics" BMC Medicine, 17 September 2013
  9. Michael Maes, Frank N.M. Twisk, "Why myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) may kill you: disorders in the inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways may explain cardiovascular disorders in ME/CFS" Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva, 20 December 2009
  10. Jason LA, Corradi K, Gress S, Williams S, Torres-Harding S, "Causes of death among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome" Health Care Women Int., 27(7): 615-626. 2006
  11. Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Due, Reidar; Saul, J. Philip; Amlie, Jan P.; Thaulow, Erik (April 1, 2007). "Usefulness of an abnormal cardiovascular response during low-grade head-up tilt-test for discriminating adolescents with chronic fatigue from healthy controls". The American Journal of Cardiology. 99 (7): 997–1001. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.10.067. ISSN 0002-9149. PMID 17398200.