Julian Mark Stewart, MD, PhD, is the Director of the Center for Hypotension, and a Professor of Pediatrics and Physiology, New York Medical College, Hawthorne, New York, United States.
2017 Pediatric Primer
Dr. Rowe was one of the authors of the 2017 Pediatric Primer published in Frontiers in Pediatrics.
- Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Diagnosis and Management in Young People: A Primer (OPEN ACCESS/FULL TEXT). Authors: Peter C. Rowe, Rosemary A. Underhill, Kenneth J. Friedman, Alan Gurwitt, Marvin S. Medow, Malcolm S. Schwartz, Nigel Speight, Julian M. Stewart, Rosamund Vallings and Katherine S. Rowe
Abstract:Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease that affects children and adolescents as well as adults. The etiology has not been established. While many pediatricians and other health-care providers are aware of ME/CFS, they often lack essential knowledge that is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Many young patients experience symptoms for years before receiving a diagnosis. This primer, written by the International Writing Group for Pediatric ME/CFS, provides information necessary to understand, diagnose, and manage the symptoms of ME/CFS in children and adolescents. ME/CFS is characterized by overwhelming fatigue with a substantial loss of physical and mental stamina. Cardinal features are malaise and a worsening of symptoms following minimal physical or mental exertion. These post-exertional symptoms can persist for hours, days, or weeks and are not relieved by rest or sleep. Other symptoms include cognitive problems, unrefreshing or disturbed sleep, generalized or localized pain, lightheadedness, and additional symptoms in multiple organ systems. While some young patients can attend school, on a full or part-time basis, many others are wheelchair dependent, housebound, or bedbound. Prevalence estimates for pediatric ME/CFS vary from 0.1 to 0.5%. Because there is no diagnostic test for ME/CFS, diagnosis is purely clinical, based on the history and the exclusion of other fatiguing illnesses by physical examination and medical testing. Co-existing medical conditions including orthostatic intolerance (OI) are common. Successful management is based on determining the optimum balance of rest and activity to help prevent post-exertional symptom worsening. Medications are helpful to treat pain, insomnia, OI and other symptoms. The published literature on ME/CFS and specifically that describing the diagnosis and management of pediatric ME/CFS is very limited. Where published studies are lacking, recommendations are based on the clinical observations and practices of the authors.
A Consensus Manual for the Primary Care and Management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Dr. Stewart was a member of the 2002 writing committee for A Consensus Manual for the Primary Care and Management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome sponsored by The Academy of Medicine of New Jersey and the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Joseph F. John, Jr., MD, Editor and James M. Oleske, MD, MPH, Associate Editor.
- 2014, Phenylephrine Alteration of Cerebral Blood Flow During Orthostasis; Effect on N-Back Performance in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- 2013, What is brain fog? An evaluation of the symptom in postural tachycardia syndrome.
- 2012, Increased ventricular lactate in chronic fatigue syndrome. III. Relationships to cortical glutathione and clinical symptoms implicate oxidative stress in disorder pathophysiology
- 2012, Orthostatic Tolerance Testing in a Prospective Cohort of Adolescents With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Recovered Controls Following Infectious Mononucleosis
Abstract - Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex condition responsible for marked functional impairment. The authors recently reported that 6 months following acute infectious mononucleosis (IM), 13%, of adolescents met criteria for CFS. The authors’ objective was to assess standing orthostatic tolerance (SOT) in adolescents with CFS and in controls 6 months following IM. In all, 36 of 39 adolescents diagnosed with CFS 6 months following IM and 43 of 50 recovered controls had SOT testing (SOTT) performed. χ2 Analysis was performed to study the relationships between SOTT and the diagnosis of CFS. Adolescents diagnosed with CFS and recovered controls did not differ significantly in age, weight, or body mass index. The authors found that 9 of 36 adolescents with CFS (25%) versus 9 of 43 recovered controls (21%) had an abnormal SOTT, which was not a statistically significant difference. Adolescents who meet criteria for CFS 6 months following IM do not have, as a group, more standing orthostatic intolerance than recovered controls.
- 2012, Postural neurocognitive and neuronal activated cerebral blood flow deficits in young chronic fatigue syndrome patients with postural tachycardia syndrome
- 2011, Increasing orthostatic stress impairs neurocognitive functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome with postural tachycardia syndrome
Abstract: CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome) is commonly co-morbid with POTS (postural tachycardia syndrome). Individuals with CFS/POTS experience unrelenting fatigue, tachycardia during orthostatic stress and ill-defined neurocognitive impairment, often described as ‘mental fog’. We hypothesized that orthostatic stress causes neurocognitive impairment in CFS/POTS related to decreased CBFV (cerebral blood flow velocity). A total of 16 CFS/POTS and 20 control subjects underwent graded tilt table testing (at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75°) with continuous cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory monitoring and neurocognitive testing using an n-back task at each angle. The n-back task tests working memory, concentration, attention and information processing. The n-back task imposes increasing cognitive challenge with escalating (0-, 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-back) difficulty levels. Subject dropout due to orthostatic presyncope at each angle was similar between groups. There were no n-back accuracy or RT (reaction time) differences between groups while supine. CFS/POTS subjects responded less correctly during the n-back task test and had greater nRT (normalized RT) at 45, 60 and 75°. Furthermore, at 75° CFS/POTS subjects responded less correctly and had greater nRT than controls during the 2-, 3- and 4-back tests. Changes in CBFV were not different between the groups and were not associated with n-back task test scores. Thus we conclude that increasing orthostatic stress combined with a cognitive challenge impairs the neurocognitive abilities of working memory, accuracy and information processing in CFS/POTS, but that this is not related to changes in CBFV. Individuals with CFS/POTS should be aware that orthostatic stress may impair their neurocognitive abilities.
- 2000, Orthostatic Intolerance: A Review with Application to the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Abstract - The symptoms of the chronic fatigue syndrome closely match those of chronic orthostatic intolerance and research suggests that orthostatic intolerance plays a role in the symptomatology of CFS. Recent investigations support the hypothesis that findings in CFS patients result at least in part from impaired blood pressure and heart rate regulation. Orthostatic intolerance has been implicated. Effective and specific treatment for chronic orthostatic intolerance can only be developed when a specific etiology or etiologies are discovered.
- Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Diagnosis and Management in Young People: A Primer
- Rowe, Peter C.; Underhill, Rosemary A.; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Gurwitt, Alan; Medow, Marvin S.; Schwartz, Malcolm S.; Speight, Nigel; Stewart, Julian M.; Vallings, Rosamund; Rowe, Katherine S. (2017), "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Diagnosis and Management in Young People: A Primer", Frontiers in Pediatrics, 5 (121), doi:10.3389/fped.2017.00121
- Oleske JJ. A Consensus Manual for the Primary Care and Management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. The Academy of Medicine of New Jersey, The New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services; 2002.
- Medow, Marvin S.; Sood, Shilpa; Messer, Zachary R.; Dzogbeta, Seli; Terilli, Courtney; Stewart, Julian M. (2014), "Phenylephrine Alteration of Cerebral Blood Flow During Orthostasis; Effect on N-Back Performance in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", Journal of Applied Physiology, 117 (10), doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00527.2014
- Ross, A. J.; Medow, M. S.; Rowe, P. C.; Stewart, J. M. (2013), "What is brain fog? An evaluation of the symptom in postural tachycardia syndrome.", Clinical Autonomic Research : Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society, 23 (6): 305–311, doi:10.1007/s10286-013-0212-z
- Dikoma C. Shungu, Nora Weiduschat, James W. Murrough, Xiangling Mao, Sarah Pillemer, Jonathan P. Dyke, Marvin S. Medow, Benjamin H. Natelson, Julian M. Stewart, Sanjay J. Mathew. (2012). Increased ventricular lactate in chronic fatigue syndrome. III. Relationships to cortical glutathione and clinical symptoms implicate oxidative stress in disorder pathophysiology. NMR in Biomedicine, DOI: 10.1002/nbm.2772
- Ben Z. Katz, MD, Julian M. Stewart, MD, PhD, Yukiko Shiraishi, PhD, Cynthia J. Mears, DO, Renee Taylor, PhD. (2012). Orthostatic Tolerance Testing in a Prospective Cohort of Adolescents With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Recovered Controls Following Infectious Mononucleosis. Clinical Pediatrics. Vol 51, Issue 9, pp. 835 - 839. DOI:10.1177/0009922812455094
- Stewart, Julian M.; Medow, Marvin S.; Messer, Zachary R.; Baugham, Ila L.; Terilli, Courtney; Ocon, Anthony J. (2012), "Postural neurocognitive and neuronal activated cerebral blood flow deficits in young chronic fatigue syndrome patients with postural tachycardia syndrome", Amer J of Physiology - Heart & Circulatory Physiology, 302 (5): H1185-H1194, doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00994.2011
- Ocon, Anthony J.; Messer, Zachary R.; Medow, Marvin S.; Stewart, Julian M. (2011), "Increasing orthostatic stress impairs neurocognitive functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome with postural tachycardia syndrome", Clinical Science, 122 (5): 227-238, doi:10.1042/CS20110241
- Julian M. Stewart. (2000). Orthostatic Intolerance: A Review with Application to the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 8, Iss. 2, pp. 45-64 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J092v08n02_05