From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history

Sodium (chemical symbol Na) is an electrolyte used in many bodily processes, including muscle and nerve function.[1] Along with potassium and magnesium, it has an important role in ion transportation.[2] Sodium is often consumed in the form of common/table salt (sodium chloride), and plays an important role in regulating blood volume and therefore blood pressure. The body excretes sodium in sweat and urine.[1] Normal blood sodium is between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L); levels below this cause cells to swell with excess water, a condition known as hyponatremia.[3]

Molecular forms of sodium[edit | edit source]

Pure sodium is highly reactive, tarnishing within seconds of exposure to air and reacting violently with water. Because of this, all naturally-occurring sodium is bonded to at least one other atom in a molecule. Common salt, or sodium chloride, is the most abundant sodium-containing molecule on Earth. Other common sodium-containing molecules include baking soda and washing soda.[4]

Sodium chloride (common or table salt)[edit | edit source]

Sodium chloride (molecular formula NaCl) is one of the most abundant minerals on earth, occurring naturally in sea salt and underground rock formations.[5] Each molecule consists of one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine. A solution of sodium chloride dissolved in water is known as saline, commonly used in intravenous fluids.[6]

Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)[edit | edit source]

Sodium imbalance[edit | edit source]

Hyponatremia[edit | edit source]

Hypernatremia[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Sodium: MedlinePlus". Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  2. "Definition of ELECTROLYTE". Merrian-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  3. "Hyponatremia - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  4. "Sodium - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table". Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  5. Pulluaim, Rebecca (February 10, 2017). "Sodium Chloride | NaCl | Uses, Benefits, and Safety Facts". Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  6. Dalton, Clayton (March 31, 2018). "Why Did Sterile Salt Water Become The IV Fluid Of Choice?". NPR. Retrieved October 3, 2022.