Regulatory T cell

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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are anti-inflammatory. They produce the anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10. They suppress effector Th1, Th2, and Th17.

Dietary and environmental factors[edit | edit source]

Vitamin D improves regulatory T cell function in healthy adults[1] and in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS),[2] suggesting that it may play a role in both preventing and ameliorating autoimmune disease.

Various species of probiotics have been shown to increase FoxP3 expression in animal models.[3]

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

An Australian group found that Tregs were elevated in thirty individuals with Fukuda for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).[4] The same group found elevated Tregs in a multiple sclerosis comparison study.[5]

However, a study that used the Revised Canadian Consensus Criteria (2010) criteria found Tregs were depleted in 76 people with ME/CFS.[6]

A second study in Japan also found decreased Tregs in 41 people who met both the Canadian Consensus Criteria and the International Consensus Criteria as compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls.[7]

It is worth noting that such seemingly contradictory results are often found in the systemic autoimmune diseases in which T cell subsets are often studied. Even in illnesses with well-established biomarkers, age, gender, and time since onset lead to significant variability.[8]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Bock, Gerlies; Prietl, Barbara; Mader, Julia K.; Höller, Evelyne; Wolf, Michael; Pilz, Stefan; Graninger, Winfried B.; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara M.; Pieber, Thomas R. (Nov 2011). "The effect of vitamin D supplementation on peripheral regulatory T cells and β cell function in healthy humans: a randomized controlled trial". Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 27 (8): 942–945. doi:10.1002/dmrr.1276. ISSN 1520-7560. PMID 22069289. 
  2. Hupperts, Raymond; Damoiseaux, Jan; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Menheere, Paul; Peelen, Evelyn; Thewissen, Mariëlle; Smolders, Joost (Aug 13, 2009). "Vitamin D Status Is Positively Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Function in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis". PLOS ONE. 4 (8): e6635. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006635. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 2721656Freely accessible. PMID 19675671. 
  3. Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Teimer, Roman; Bockermann, Robert (Nov 16, 2011). "Influence of Dietary Components on Regulatory T Cells". Molecular Medicine. 18 (1): 95–110. doi:10.2119/molmed.2011.00311. ISSN 1076-1551. PMC 3276397Freely accessible. PMID 22113499. 
  4. Brenu, Ekua Weba; Huth, Teilah K.; Hardcastle, Sharni L.; Fuller, Kirsty; Kaur, Manprit; Johnston, Samantha; Ramos, Sandra B.; Staines, Don R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M. (Apr 2014). "Role of adaptive and innate immune cells in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis". International Immunology. 26 (4): 233–242. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxt068. ISSN 1460-2377. PMID 24343819. 
  5. 5.05.1 Ramos, S; Brenu, E; Broadley, S; Kwiatek, R; Ng, J; Nguyen, T; Freeman, S; Staines, D; Marshall-Gradisnik, S (Mar 20, 2016), "Regulatory T, natural killer T and γδ T cells in multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a comparison" (PDF), Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2016 (34): 300-305, doi:10.12932/AP0733 
  6. Rivas, Jose Luis; Palencia, Teresa; Fernández, Guerau; García, Milagros (May 9, 2018). "Association of T and NK Cell Phenotype With the Diagnosis of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)". Frontiers in Immunology. 9. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01028. ISSN 1664-3224. PMC 5954087Freely accessible. PMID 29867995. 
  7. Yamamura, T.; Sato, W.; Ono, H. (Oct 15, 2017). "Dysregulation of T and B cells in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 381: 899–900. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2017.08.2533. ISSN 0022-510X. 
  8. Kasper, Isaac R.; Apostolidis, Sokratis A.; Sharabi, Amir; Tsokos, George C. (Sep 2016). "Empowering Regulatory T Cells in Autoimmunity". Trends in molecular medicine. 22 (9): 784–797. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2016.07.003. ISSN 1471-4914. PMC 5003773Freely accessible. PMID 27461103. 

T cell - A type of white blood cell which is mostly produced or matured in the thymus gland (hence T-cell) and is involved in the adaptive immune response on a cellular level. Also known as a T lymphocyte. (Learn more:

T cell - A type of white blood cell which is mostly produced or matured in the thymus gland (hence T-cell) and is involved in the adaptive immune response on a cellular level. Also known as a T lymphocyte. (Learn more:

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.