Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Volume 8, Issue 1, 2000-2001

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Titles and abstracts for the Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Volume 8, Issue 1, 2000-2001.

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2000-2001[edit | edit source]

  • Editorial by Roberto Patarca-Montero
  • Immunotherapy of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Therapeutic Interventions Aimed at Modulating the Th1/Th2 Cytokine Expression Balance
    "Abstract - Based on the postulates of viral and autoimmune etiologies of CFS, several interventions have been designed and tested by different research groups around the world, including the United States, Sweden, United Kingdom, Italy, and Japan. This review addresses those interventions aimed at altering the balance of certain cytokines, the mediators of immune responses. Patients with CFS who show evidence of activation of the immune system have poor immune cell function and a predominance of what is called a T-helper (Th)2-type cytokine response when their lymphocytes are activated. A Th2-type response, which is characterized by production of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)−4, −5, and −10, favors the function of B lymphocytes, the cellular factories of immunoglobulins. A predominance of a Th2-type response is therefore consistent with pathologies, such as autoimmunity and atopy, which are based on inappropriate production of immunoglobulins. Many of the CFS therapies discussed decrease the Th2-type predominance seen at baseline in CFS patients, thereby allowing a greater predominance of a Thl-type response, which favors the function of macrophages and natural killer cells. The function of the latter cells, which have the natural ability of directly destroying invading microbes and cancer cells, is defective in untreated CFS patients. Typical Thl-type cytokines include IL-2 and interferon-gamma, and some of the therapies induce their production. The interventions discussed in this review cover a wide spectrum of therapeutic tools ranging from lymph node cell immunotherapy, herbal products, and small molecules to vaccines. Despite the controversies on the etiology of CFS, immunotherapy research is useful and necessary.[1]
  • Clinical and Immunologic Effects of Autologous Lymph Node Cell Transplant in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    "Abstract - An open labeled, phase 1, safety and feasibility study using lymph node extraction, ex vivo lymph node cell expansion, followed by autologous cell reinfusion was evaluated as a potential immunomodulatory treatment strategy in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The experimental therapy utilized the cells of the lymph node, activated and grown in culture with defined media, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-CD3 to activate and enhance cellular immunological functions. This procedure was designed to change the cytokine pattern of the lymph node lymphocytes to favor expression of T-helper (Th)l-type over Th2-type cytokines. The mixed population of ex vivo immune-enhanced cells were reinfused into the donor, who was carefully monitored for adverse events and possible clinical benefit. There were no adverse events. There were significant improvements in clinical status in association with a significant decrease in Th2-type cytokine production.[2]
  • Nickel Allergy is Found in a Majority of Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Muscle Pain—and may be Triggered by Cigarette Smoke and Dietary Nickel Intake
    "Abstract - Two hundred and four women with chronic fatigue and muscle pain, with no signs of autoimmune disorder, received immune stimulation injections with a Staphylococcus vaccine at monthly intervals over 6 months. Good response was defined as a decrease by at least 50% of the total score on an observer's rating scale. Nickel allergy was evaluated as probable if the patient had a positive history of skin hyper-sensitivity from cutaneous exposure to metal objects. The patient's smoking habits were recorded. Fifty-two percent of the patients had a positive history of nickel contact dermatitis. There were significantly more good responders among the non-allergic non-smokers (39%) than among the allergic smokers (6%). We also present case reports on nickel-allergic patients who apparently improved after cessation of cigarette smoking and reducing their dietary nickel intake. Our observations indicate that exposure to nickel, by dietary intake or inhalation of cigarette smoke, may trigger systemic nickel allergy and contribute to syndromes of chronic fatigue and muscle pain."[3]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Montero, Roberto Patarca; Klimas, Nancy G.; Fletcher, Mary Ann (2000). "Immunotherapy of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Therapeutic Interventions Aimed at Modulating the Th1/Th2 Cytokine Expression Balance". Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 8 (1): 3–37. doi:10.1300/J092v08n01_02.
  2. Nancy G. Klimas, Roberto Patarca Montero, Kevin Maher, & Mary Ann Fletcher. (2000). Immunotherapy of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Therapeutic Interventions Aimed at Modulating the Th1/Th2 Cytokine Expression Balance. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 8, Iss. 1, pp. 39-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J092v08n01_03
  3. Regland, Bjorn; Zachrisson, Olof; Stejskal, Vera; Gottfries, Carl Gerhard (2000). "Immunotherapy of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Therapeutic Interventions Aimed at Modulating the Th1/Th2 Cytokine Expression Balance". Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 8 (1): 57–65. doi:10.1300/J092v08n01_04.

cytokine any class of immunoregulatory proteins secreted by cells, especially immune cells. Cytokines are small proteins important in cell signaling that modulate the immune system. (Learn more: me-pedia.org)

B cell B lymphocyte, or a type of white blood cell, which is involved in the immune response by secreting antibodies to ward off infections. In mammals, they are mostly matured in the bone marrow.

antibodies Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.

phase one A drug trial involving only a small group of humans, often healthy volunteers, to assess drug safety and side effects. Typically 20-80 participants, often using a comparison group.

Category:immunomodulators|immunomodulator]]

immunomodulator a substance that affects the functioning of the immune system

limbic cortex Part of the brain (within the cerebral cortex) involved in emotion, memory and behavior. Part of the limbic system.

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