Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

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The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale or HADS is a questionnaire used to screen medically ill patients for anxiety and depression, and was designed to exclude physical symptoms that could possibly be caused by medical illness.[1][2]
It consists of 14 questions, seven for anxiety and 7 for depression.
[1] It does not contain all the necessary questions to make a firm diagnosis of anxiety or depression because it does not include questions about sleep, self-harm and suicidality are needed .[1]

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale has been validated in many different patient populations, including cancer patients, and in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.[1][2][3][4]

Morriss & Wearden (1998) found a cut-off of 9/10 useful for anxiety or depression in the HADS scale when compared with a clinical interview, however this was based on the broad Oxford criteria of CFS, which may include patients with other forms of unexplained chronic fatigue.[3]

McCue at al (2006) also found the HADS valid in patients with CFS, and noted that internet based use have higher scores. McCue et al used questions they devised from the CDC's Fukuda criteria, and the less common London ME criteria, and found that the in ME/CFS patients the HADS, which was designed to assess two dimensions (anxiety and depression), actually better fit a three-dimensional model of Anhedonic depression, Negative depression and Autonomic anxiety.[4]

HADS in research[edit | edit source]

HADS is sometimes used in research studies to approximate levels is anxiety or depression in patients who are physically ill. It has been heavily used by British paediatrician Esther Crawley.[citation needed]

Theory[edit | edit source]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

  • 1998, Screening instruments for psychiatric morbidity in chronic fatigue syndrome,[3](Full text)
  • 2006, Screening for psychological distress using internet administration of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome[4](Full text)
  • 2012, The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: An updated literature review[2](Abstract)
  • 2014, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale[1](Abstract)

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.01.11.21.31.4 Stern, Anna F. (Jul 1, 2014). "The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale". Occupational Medicine. 64 (5): 393–394. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqu024. ISSN 0962-7480. 
  2. 2.02.12.2 Bjelland, Ingvar; Dahl, Alv A; Haug, Tone Tangen; Neckelmann, Dag (Feb 1, 2002). "The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: An updated literature review". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 52 (2): 69–77. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(01)00296-3. ISSN 0022-3999. 
  3. 3.03.13.2 Morriss, Richard K; Wearden, Alison J (Jul 1, 1998). "Screening instruments for psychiatric morbidity in chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 91 (7): 365–368. doi:10.1177/014107689809100706. ISSN 0141-0768. 
  4. 4.04.14.2 McCue, Patricia; Buchanan, Tom; Martin, Colin R. (Nov 2006). "Screening for psychological distress using internet administration of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome". British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 45 (4): 483–498. doi:10.1348/014466505X82379. 

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A controversial term, invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, that generally refers to a collection of symptoms as “fatigue”. There have been multiple attempts to come up with a set of diagnostic criteria to define this term, but few of those diagnostic criteria are currently in use. Previous attempts to define this term include the Fukuda criteria and the Oxford criteria. Some view the term as a useful diagnostic category for people with long-term fatigue of unexplained origin. Others view the term as a derogatory term borne out of animus towards patients. Some view the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, while others view myalgic encephalomyelitis as a distinct disease.

chronic fatigue (CF) - Persistent and abnormal fatigue is a symptom, not an illness. It may be caused by depression, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome or many other illnesses. The term "chronic fatigue" should never be confused with the disease chronic fatigue syndrome.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a U.S. government agency dedicated to epidemiology and public health. It operates under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A controversial term, invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, that generally refers to a collection of symptoms as “fatigue”. There have been multiple attempts to come up with a set of diagnostic criteria to define this term, but few of those diagnostic criteria are currently in use. Previous attempts to define this term include the Fukuda criteria and the Oxford criteria. Some view the term as a useful diagnostic category for people with long-term fatigue of unexplained origin. Others view the term as a derogatory term borne out of animus towards patients. Some view the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, while others view myalgic encephalomyelitis as a distinct disease.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.