Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale or HADS is a questionnaire used to screen medically ill patients for anxiety and depression, and was designed to exclude physical symptoms that could possibly be caused by medical illness.
It consists of 14 questions, seven for anxiety and 7 for depression.
 It does not contain all the necessary questions to make a firm diagnosis of anxiety or depression because it does not include questions about sleep, self-harm and suicidality are needed .
ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
Morriss & Wearden (1998) found a cut-off of 9/10 useful for anxiety or depression in the HADS scale when compared with a clinical interview, however this was based on the broad Oxford criteria of CFS, which may include patients with other forms of unexplained chronic fatigue.
McCue at al (2006) also found the HADS valid in patients with CFS, and noted that internet based use have higher scores. McCue et al used questions they devised from the CDC's Fukuda criteria, and the less common London ME criteria, and found that the in ME/CFS patients the HADS, which was designed to assess two dimensions (anxiety and depression), actually better fit a three-dimensional model of Anhedonic depression, Negative depression and Autonomic anxiety.
HADS in research[edit | edit source]
HADS is sometimes used in research studies to approximate levels is anxiety or depression in patients who are physically ill. It has been heavily used by British paediatrician Esther Crawley.
Theory[edit | edit source]
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 1998, Screening instruments for psychiatric morbidity in chronic fatigue syndrome,(Full text)
- 2006, Screening for psychological distress using internet administration of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome(Full text)
- 2012, The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: An updated literature review(Abstract)
- 2014, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(Abstract)
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Stern, Anna F. (July 1, 2014). "The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale". Occupational Medicine. 64 (5): 393–394. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqu024. ISSN 0962-7480.
- Bjelland, Ingvar; Dahl, Alv A; Haug, Tone Tangen; Neckelmann, Dag (February 1, 2002). "The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: An updated literature review". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 52 (2): 69–77. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(01)00296-3. ISSN 0022-3999.
- Morriss, Richard K; Wearden, Alison J (July 1, 1998). "Screening instruments for psychiatric morbidity in chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 91 (7): 365–368. doi:10.1177/014107689809100706. ISSN 0141-0768.
- McCue, Patricia; Buchanan, Tom; Martin, Colin R. (November 2006). "Screening for psychological distress using internet administration of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome". British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 45 (4): 483–498. doi:10.1348/014466505X82379.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a U.S. government agency dedicated to epidemiology and public health. It operates under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.
somatic symptom disorder A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience.