The gut-brain axis is the bidirectional biochemical signaling that takes places between the gut and the brain, often involving intestinal microbiota. It is a framework that explains how dysbiosis might effect brain function in neurological disease and how attempt to alter micro biome composition might be therapeutic.
Most scientific knowledge about gut-brain interactions comes from the study of germ-free and single organism mice, that is mice that are raised with a completely sterile gastrointestinal tract or who are inoculated with a single bacterial species. Mice that develop without a microbiome have sensory processing impairments and impairments of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response.
Notable studies[edit | edit source]
- 2017, Fecal metagenomic profiles in subgroups of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome - (Full Text)
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Williams, Brent L.; Mishra, Nischay; Che, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bohyun; Bateman, Lucinda; Klimas, Nancy G.; Komaroff, Anthony L.; Levine, Susan; Montoya, Jose G.; Peterson, Daniel L.; Ramanan, Devi; Jain, Komal; Eddy, Meredith L.; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian (2017), "Fecal metagenomic profiles in subgroups of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome", Microbiome, 5 (44), doi:10.1186/s40168-017-0261-y
myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.