Chronic Lyme disease

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Chronic Lyme disease is caused by a long-standing active Borrelia burgdorferi infection. There's an overwhelming amount of research, both in vitro and in vivo, that supports the fact that B. burgdorferi can persist in the human body, not only in the spirochetal but also in the antibiotic-resistant biofilm form, even after antibiotic treatment.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Despite this, parts of the medical community discard this disease in conflict with science.[2]

Spirochete, or “corkscrew-shaped” bacteria known as Borrelia burgdorferi

Symptoms[edit | edit source]

Treatment and management[edit | edit source]

Notable research[edit | edit source]

Multiple Pathogens[edit | edit source]

Pathobiome Paradigm[edit | edit source]

  • 2015, Some future research will focus on a spectrum of pathogens instead of a "one pathogen-one disease" vision.[21]

United States Congressional Report[edit | edit source]

Blood and other laboratory tests[edit | edit source]

United States[edit | edit source]

United Kingdom[edit | edit source]

  • BBC1 Lyme Disease Discussion - Some patients have waited up to 30 years for a correct diagnosis. National Health Service (NHS) services have only correctly identified the disease in a quarter of the patients. The blood tests are unreliable and often come back negative. The development of an accurate blood test is in need of research funding.[26]

False positives[edit | edit source]

Several herpesviruses including varicella zoster virus[28][29], cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus,[30] and HSV-2[31] may cause false positives on Lyme Disease tests.

News media on unapproved tests[edit | edit source]

Co-infections[edit | edit source]

Herpesviruses[edit | edit source]

Lyme may cause reactivation of latent herpesviruses. At the same time, several herpesviruses including varicella zoster virus,[28][29] cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus,[30] and HSV-2[31] may cause false positives on lyme disease tests.

Pathobiome paradigm[edit | edit source]

Some future research will focus on a spectrum of pathogens instead of a "one pathogen-one disease" vision.[36]

Lyme Disease vs Chronic Fatigue Syndrome[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Berndtson, Keith (April 23, 2013). "Review of evidence for immune evasion and persistent infection in Lyme disease". International Journal of General Medicine. doi:10.2147/ijgm.s44114. PMC 3636972. PMID 23637552. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Stricker, Raphael B.; Johnson, Lorraine (April 22, 2013). "Persistent infection in chronic lyme disease: does form matter?". Research Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1 (1): 2. doi:10.7243/2052-5958-1-2. ISSN 2052-5958.
  3. Sapi, Eva; Bastian, Scott L.; Mpoy, Cedric M.; Scott, Shernea; Rattelle, Amy; Pabbati, Namrata; Poruri, Akhila; Burugu, Divya; Theophilus, Priyanka A.S. (October 24, 2012). "Characterization of Biofilm Formation by Borrelia burgdorferi In Vitro". PLOS ONE. 7 (10): e48277. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048277. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3480481. PMID 23110225.
  4. Caskey, John R.; Hasenkampf, Nicole R.; Martin, Dale S.; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Cheslock, Mercedes A.; Embers, Monica E. (2019). "The Functional and Molecular Effects of Doxycycline Treatment on Borrelia burgdorferi Phenotype". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00690. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 6482230. PMID 31057493.
  5. Lacout, Alexis; Hajjam, Mostafa El; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Perronne, Christian (July 1, 2018). "The Persistent Lyme Disease: "True Chronic Lyme Disease" rather than "Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome"". Journal of Global Infectious Diseases. 10 (3): 170. doi:10.4103/jgid.jgid_152_17. ISSN 0974-777X. PMC 6100330. PMID 30166820.
  6. Middelveen, Marianne J.; Sapi, Eva; Burke, Jennie; Filush, Katherine R.; Franco, Agustin; Fesler, Melissa C.; Stricker, Raphael B. (June 2018). "Persistent Borrelia Infection in Patients with Ongoing Symptoms of Lyme Disease". Healthcare. 6 (2): 33. doi:10.3390/healthcare6020033. PMC 6023324. PMID 29662016.
  7. Sharma, Bijaya; Brown, Autumn V.; Matluck, Nicole E.; Hu, Linden T.; Lewis, Kim (August 1, 2015). "Borrelia burgdorferi, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease, Forms Drug-Tolerant Persister Cells". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (8): 4616–4624. doi:10.1128/AAC.00864-15. ISSN 0066-4804. PMID 26014929.
  8. Feng, Jie; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Zhang, Ying (March 25, 2015). "Drug Combinations against Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters In Vitro: Eradication Achieved by Using Daptomycin, Cefoperazone and Doxycycline". PLOS ONE. 10 (3): e0117207. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117207. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4373819. PMID 25806811.
  9. Locke, Jonathan W. (June 2019). "Complement Evasion in Borrelia spirochetes: Mechanisms and Opportunities for Intervention". Antibiotics. 8 (2): 80. doi:10.3390/antibiotics8020080. PMC 6627623. PMID 31200570.
  10. Wagemakers, A.; Visser, M.C.; de Wever, B.; Hovius, J.W.; van de Donk, N.W.C.J.; Hendriks, E.J.; Peferoen, L.; Muller, F.F.; Ang, C.W. (August 2, 2018). "Case report: persistently seronegative neuroborreliosis in an immunocompromised patient". BMC Infectious Diseases. 18 (1): 362. doi:10.1186/s12879-018-3273-8. ISSN 1471-2334. PMC 6090844. PMID 30071836.
  11. Rudenko, Natalie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Kybicova, Katerina; Vancova, Marie (May 16, 2019). "Metamorphoses of Lyme disease spirochetes: phenomenon of Borrelia persisters". Parasites & Vectors. 12 (1): 237. doi:10.1186/s13071-019-3495-7. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC 6521364. PMID 31097026.
  12. Aslam, Bilal; Nisar, Muhammad Atif; Khurshid, Mohsin; Farooq Salamat, Muhammad Khalid (September 15, 2017). "Immune escape strategies of Borrelia burgdorferi". Future Microbiology. 12 (13): 1219–1237. doi:10.2217/fmb-2017-0013. ISSN 1746-0913.
  13. Maloney, Elizabeth L. (November 2016). "Controversies in Persistent (Chronic) Lyme Disease". Journal of Infusion Nursing. 39 (6): 369–375. doi:10.1097/NAN.0000000000000195. ISSN 1533-1458. PMC 5102277. PMID 27755213.
  14. Cabello, Felipe C.; Godfrey, Henry P.; Bugrysheva, Julia V.; Newman, Stuart A. (2017). "Sleeper cells: the stringent response and persistence in the Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi enzootic cycle". Environmental Microbiology. 19 (10): 3846–3862. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.13897. ISSN 1462-2920. PMC 5794220. PMID 28836724.
  15. DeLong, Allison K.; Blossom, Barbara; Maloney, Elizabeth L.; Phillips, Steven E. (November 2012). "Antibiotic retreatment of Lyme disease in patients with persistent symptoms: A biostatistical review of randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials". Contemporary Clinical Trials. 33 (6): 1132–1142. doi:10.1016/j.cct.2012.08.009. ISSN 1551-7144.
  16. Sapi, Eva; Kasliwala, Rumanah S.; Ismail, Hebo; Torres, Jason P.; Oldakowski, Michael; Markland, Sarah; Gaur, Gauri; Melillo, Anthony; Eisendle, Klaus (December 2019). "The Long-Term Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi Antigens and DNA in the Tissues of a Patient with Lyme Disease". Antibiotics. 8 (4): 183. doi:10.3390/antibiotics8040183. PMC 6963883. PMID 31614557.
  17. "Quirky Lyme disease bacteria: Unlike most organisms, they don't need iron, but crave manganese". ScienceDaily. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. March 21, 2013. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  18. "Ticks that transmit Lyme disease reported in nearly half of all US counties". ScienceDaily. Entomological Society of America. January 18, 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
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  20. "Researchers identify new Borrelia species that causes Lyme disease: Until now, Borrelia burgdorferi was only species believed to cause Lyme disease in North America". ScienceDaily. February 8, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  21. Vayssier-Taussat, M; Kazimirova, M; Hubalek, Z; Hornok, S; Farkas, R; Cosson, JF; Bonnet, S; Vourch, G; Gasqui, P; Mihalca, AD; Plantard, O; Silaghi, C; Cutler, S; Rizzlo, A (November 19, 2015), "Emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the 'one pathogen-one disease' vision to the pathobiome paradigm", Future Microbiol, 10 (12): 2033-43, doi:10.2217/fmb.15.114, PMID 26610021
  22. Aucott, John N; Honey, Kristen T; Adams, Wendy; Beard, Charles Benjamin; Cooper, Captain Scott; Dixon, Dennis; Horowitz, Richard; Jones, Captain Estella; Nigrovic, Lisa E (2018). "Tick-Borne Disease Working Group - 2018 Report to Congress" (PDF). Allen Richards; Robert Sabatino; Vanila Singh; Patricia Smith; Robert Smith. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
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  26. Loukas, Demetrios (February 27, 2016). "BBC1 Lyme Disease 27.02.2016". YouTube. Katherine Allman.
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  30. 30.0 30.1 Goossens, HA; Nohlmans, MK; van den Bogaard, AE (May 1999), "Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections cause false-positive results in IgM two-test protocol for early Lyme borreliosis", Infection, 27 (3): 231, PMID 10378140
  31. 31.0 31.1 Strasfeld, L; Romanzi, L; Seder, RH; Berardi, VP (2005), "False-Positive Serological Test Results for Lyme Disease in a Patient with Acute Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2", Clin Infect Dis, 41 (12): 1826–1827, doi:10.1086/498319, PMID 16288417
  32. Santora, Dan Hurley and Marc. "Unproved Lyme Disease Tests Prompt Warnings". Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  33. Daley, Beth (October 21, 2013). "Many tests to diagnose Lyme, but no proof they do - The Boston Globe". Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  34. Lyme Culture Test Causes Uproar. "Medscape Log In". Medscape. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  35. Daley, Beth (June 17, 2014). "Federal Loopholes Compromise Lyme Disease Testing". WGBH 89.7. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
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