Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder or PMDD or Late luteal dysphoric disorder (LLDD) is cyclic hormone-based mood disorder affecting women of child-bearing age. PMDD is regarded as a severe form of premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual disorder that a range of psychological or physical symptoms, typically including severe irritability, depression, or anxiety in the week or two before your period starts. Symptoms usually go away two to three days after your period starts.
Signs and symptoms[edit | edit source]
A minimum of 5 of these symptoms:
One or more of:
- Markedly depressed mood, feelings of hopelessness, or self-deprecating thoughts
- Marked anxiety, tension, feelings of being "keyed up" or "on edge
- Marked affective lability (severe mood swings)
- Persistent and marked anger or irritability or increased interpersonal conflicts
- Decreased interest in usual activities (eg, work, school, friends, and hobbies)
Plus some of:
- Subjective sense of difficulty in concentrating
- Lethargy, easy fatigability, or marked lack of energy
- Marked change in appetite, overeating, or specific food cravings
- Hypersomnia or insomnia
- A subjective sense of being overwhelmed or out of control
- Other physical symptoms, such as breast tenderness or swelling, headaches, joint or muscle pain, a sensation of bloating, or weight gain.
Symptoms must also be
- severe enough to interfere significantly with social, occupational, sexual, or scholastic functioning, and
- directly related to the menstrual cycle, and
- not merely simply worsening of the symptoms of another disorder, such as major depressive disorder, panic disorder, dysthymic disorder, or a personality disorder, and
- symptoms must be present for at least 2 consecutive menstrual cycles.
Treatment[edit | edit source]
A range of options exist, including:
- diet changes
- hormone treatments, which may include contraceptive pills
ME/CFS[edit | edit source]
Notable articles[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) - Women's Health
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder - Johns Hopkins Medicine
References[edit | edit source]
- "About Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder". International Association For Premenstrual Disorders. Retrieved December 31, 2021.
- Mishra, Sanskriti; Elliott, Harold; Marwaha, Raman (2021). Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID 30335340.
- "Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)". Office on Women's Health. Retrieved December 31, 2021.
- APA (2013). Diagnostic and Statostical Manual of Mental Disorders (5 ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub. Press.
- Carlini, Sara V.; Deligiannidis, Kristina M. (February 4, 2020). "Evidence-Based Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Concise Review". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 81 (2): 19ac13071. doi:10.4088/JCP.19ac13071. ISSN 1555-2101. PMC 7716347. PMID 32023366.
American Psychiatric Association (APA) - The main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world. Not to be confused with the American Psychological Association (also APA).