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Types of fasting[edit | edit source]

Water only fasting[edit | edit source]

As the name implies, this is a type of fasting where only water may be consumed – no other food or beverage is permitted.

Liquid fasting[edit | edit source]

Some fasts include abstaining from solid foods but consuming calorie-containing liquids, such as vegetables juices or broth.

Intermittent fasting[edit | edit source]

In this form of fasting, a person alternates between periods of fasting and non-fasting, with a defined schedule. Intermittent fasting is of interest to researchers for its potential effects on insulin sensitivity and other aspects of health.

Caloric restriction[edit | edit source]

Physiological effects[edit | edit source]

A fast with duration sufficient to deplete the body's glycogen stores may puts the body into a fat-burning mode called ketosis.

Fasting also increases autophagy.

Health effects[edit | edit source]

There is no evidence on the benefits or harms of fasting for ME and CFS patients. However, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting possible health benefits of water-only fasting to the microbiome,[1] mitochondria[2] and the immune system,[3] and as a cancer adjuvant.[4][5][6]

Immune system[edit | edit source]

Caloric restriction significantly reduced the amount of circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein.[7]

Chronic fatigue syndrome[edit | edit source]

Courtney Craig has proposed the use of fasting, caloric restriction and a ketogenic diet in the treatment of mitochondrial damage in ME/CFS.[8]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Remely, Marlene; Hippe, Berit; Geretschlaeger, Isabella; Stegmayer, Sonja; Hoefinger, Ingrid; Haslberger, Alexander (May 2015), "Increased gut microbiota diversity and abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia after fasting: a pilot study", Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 127 (9-10): 394–398, doi:10.1007/s00508-015-0755-1, ISSN 1613-7671, PMID 25763563 
  2. Cerqueira, Fernanda M.; Laurindo, Francisco R. M.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J. (Mar 31, 2011), "Mild Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Calorie Restriction Increase Fasting eNOS, Akt and Mitochondrial Biogenesis", PLOS ONE, 6 (3): –18433, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018433, ISSN 1932-6203, retrieved Nov 9, 2016 
  3. Cheng, Chia-Wei; Adams, Gregor B.; Perin, Laura; Wei, Min; Zhou, Xiaoying; Lam, Ben S.; Da Sacco, Stefano; Mirisola, Mario; Quinn, David I.; Dorff, Tanya B.; Kopchick, John J.; Longo, Valter D. (Jun 5, 2014), "Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression", Cell Stem Cell, 14 (6): 810–823, doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014, ISSN 1934-5909, retrieved Nov 9, 2016 
  4. Lee, Changhan; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Safdie, Fernando M.; Bianchi, Giovanna; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Pistoia, Vito; Wei, Min; Hwang, Saewon; Merlino, Annalisa; Emionite, Laura; Cabo, Rafael de; Longo, Valter D. (Mar 7, 2012), "Fasting Cycles Retard Growth of Tumors and Sensitize a Range of Cancer Cell Types to Chemotherapy", Science Translational Medicine, 4 (124): 124–27–124ra27, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003293, ISSN 1946-6234, PMID 22323820, retrieved Nov 9, 2016 
  5. Lee, C.; Longo, V. D. (Jul 28, 2011), "Fasting vs dietary restriction in cellular protection and cancer treatment: from model organisms to patients", Oncogene, 30 (30): 3305–3316, doi:10.1038/onc.2011.91, ISSN 0950-9232, retrieved Nov 9, 2016 
  6. Safdie, Fernando M.; Dorff, Tanya; Quinn, David; Fontana, Luigi; Wei, Min; Lee, Changhan; Cohen, Pinchas; Longo, Valter D. (Dec 31, 2009), "Fasting and cancer treatment in humans: A case series report", Aging (Albany NY), 1 (12): 988–1007, ISSN 1945-4589, PMID 20157582, retrieved Nov 9, 2016 
  7. Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Shoufeng; Yang, Liu; Huang, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guoping; Zhang, Menghui; Pang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Zhen; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Liping (Jul 16, 2013), "Structural modulation of gut microbiota in life-long calorie-restricted mice", Nature Communications, 4: 2163, doi:10.1038/ncomms3163, ISSN 2041-1723, retrieved Nov 9, 2016 
  8. Craig, Courtney (November 2015), "Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets", Medical Hypotheses, 85 (5): 690-693, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2015.08.013, PMID 26315446 

Myalgic encephalomyelitis or M.E. has different diagnostic criteria to chronic fatigue syndrome; neurological symptoms are required but fatigue is an optional symptom.<ref name="ICP2011primer">{{Citation

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From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history