Cryotherapy is the local or general use of low temperatures. Methods of lowering temperature include ice packs, ice bathing, and exposure to low environmental temperature. Some studies have shown that cold exposure can be anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and to extend life in model organisms. This may be due to hormesis and the effects of heat shock proteins and cold shock proteins. However, as most research has been conducted in animals and in healthy human controls, there is limited evidence for cryotherapy in the treatment of chronic disease.
Methods[edit | edit source]
Methods of lowering temperature include ice packs, ice bathing, and exposure to low environmental temperature.
Health effects[edit | edit source]
Immune system[edit | edit source]
Cryotherapy may improve response to experimental endotoxin exposure. Hypothermic rabbits have a 10× greater resistance to bacterial endotoxins than normal rabbits. One study in humans attempted to test the effects of Wim Hof's "method" – a combination of mediation, breathing techniques and immersion in cold water to activate the Sympathetic nervous system – in a group of healthy volunteers. As compared to the control group, the treatment group had improved immune response when exposed to escherichia coli.
Environment[edit | edit source]
Hypothermic rodents to have a greater resistance to irradiation.
Longevity[edit | edit source]
Numerous studies of invertebrate model organisms such as Drosophilamelanogaster and C.Elegans have shown colder temperatures increase lifespan. Studies of fish and amphibians in both the wild and in laboratory settings have also shown a positive correlation between colder temperature and lifespan.
In the rodent literature, there are several examples of cold increasing lifespan. Mice genetically engineered to have a reduced body temperature of 0.3 degrees to 0.5 degrees C had a greater median life span (12% increase in males; 20% increase in females) than normal mice. Rats exposed to a cool water bath four hours a day lived 10% longer than controls, despite eating 44% more calories. (Caloric restriction, which has been shown to increase lifespan in numerous studies of model organisms, may have its effects via the lowering of body temperature rather than the direct effects of reduced caloric intake. Some studies have shown the effects of caloric restriction may be attenuated in animals raised at higher room temperatures.)
In human disease[edit | edit source]
Concussion & migraine[edit | edit source]
A randomized controlled trial of an icepack applied to the carotid arteries of the neck found it significantly reduced pain when used at the onset of migraine. In open label trial, a similar treatment improved the symptoms of migraine and of post-traumatic headache.
Chronic fatigue syndrome[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
Learn more[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Shibata, R. "Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease". Circ. J.
- Keil, Gerald (2015). "Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity". Biogerontology. 16(4): 383–397.
- Liu, R.K. (1972). "The Effect of Lowered Body Temperature on Lifespan and Immune and Non-Immune Processes". Gertontology. 18: 363–388.
- Rikke, Brad (2004). "Lower body temperature as a potential mechanism of life extension in homeotherms". Experimental Gerontology. 39: 1431.
- Kox, Matthijs. "Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans". Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences. 111 (20): 7379–7384.
- Storer, John (October 1952). "Hypothermia and increased survival rate of infant mice irradiated with X-rays". American Physiological Society. Volume 171, Issue 2: 341–348.
- Kelly, MA (September 2013). "Effect of temperature on the rate of ageing: an experimental study of the blowfly Calliphora stygia". PLoS One. 8(9): e73781.
- Voorhies, Van (1999). "Genetic and environmental conditions that increase longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans decrease metabolic rate". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96(20): 11399–403.
- Miquel, J (Sep–Oct 1976). "Effects of temperature on the life span, vitality and fine structure of Drosophila melanogaster". Mech Ageing Dev. 5(5): 347–70.
- Conti, B (Nov 2006). "Transgenic mice with a reduced core body temperature have an increased life span". Science. 314(5800): 825–8.
- Holloszy, JO (November 1986). "Longevity of cold-exposed rats: a reevaluation of the "rate-of-living theory"". Journal of Applied Physiology. 61(5): 1656–60.
- Sprouse-Blum, Adam (July 2013). "Randomized Controlled Trial: Targeted Neck Cooling in the Treatment of the Migraine Patient". Hawaii J Med Public Health. 72(7): 237–241.
- Ulcer, Serap (December 2016). "Cold Therapy in Migraine Patients: Open-label, Non-controlled, Pilot Study". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 3(4): 489–493.
- Jensen, OK (October 1990). "An Open Study Comparing Manual Therapy with the Use of Cold Packs in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Headache". Cephalalgia.
- American Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Society. "Hydrotherapy".
immunomodulator - a substance that affects the functioning of the immune system
chronic disease - a disease or condition that usually lasts for 3 months or longer and may get worse over time
randomized controlled trial (RCT) - A trial in which participants are randomly assigned to two groups, with one group receiving the treatment being studied and a control or comparison group receiving a sham treatment, placebo, or comparison treatment.
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A controversial term, invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, that generally refers to a collection of symptoms as “fatigue”. There have been multiple attempts to come up with a set of diagnostic criteria to define this term, but few of those diagnostic criteria are currently in use. Previous attempts to define this term include the Fukuda criteria and the Oxford criteria. Some view the term as a useful diagnostic category for people with long-term fatigue of unexplained origin. Others view the term as a derogatory term borne out of animus towards patients. Some view the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, while others view myalgic encephalomyelitis as a distinct disease.
myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.