Coxsackie B

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history
Jump to: navigation, search

Coxsackie B (also written coxsackievirus B) is a type of enterovirus. There are several different serotypes of Coxsackie B known to infect humans.

Immune system[edit]

In a mouse model of myocarditis, Coxsackievirus infection was found to upregulate Toll-like receptor 4 on mast cells and macrophages immediately following infection. It also increased numbers of mast cells.[1]

In human disease[edit]

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis[edit]

Research has shown that many patients with ME have persistently elevated levels of Coxsackie B IgM or IgG antibodies as well as circulating immune complexes containing viral antigen, indicating the possible presence of a persistent infection. Elevated Coxsackie B antibodies have been found in patients in at least two ME outbreaks.[2][3] In a retrospective cohort study[4] by Melvin Ramsay and Elizabeth Dowsett, 31% of the patients were found to have elevated enteroviral IgM antibody levels. Sixteen of these patients were retested annually over three years and all showed persistently elevated Coxsackie B neutralizing antibody levels and intermittently positive enteroviral IgM, suggesting a persistent infection was present.

Type 1 diabetes[edit]

A study of patients with Type 1 Diabetes found that Coxsackie B4 was found to infect β cells and cause inflammation mediated by natural killer cells.[5]

Testing[edit]

In the United States, ARUP Laboratories offers a serum microneutralization assay that is designed to measure the concentration of serum antibodies to six serotypes of the virus; B1 through B6. This specific assay has been shown to be sensitive for detection of chronic infections in ME patients. A persistent fourfold or greater rise in antibody titer is often found in these patients, which is not often found in healthy controls.

A complement fixation assay for Coxsackie B serotypes is available in the United States from LabCorp and Quest Diagnostics, however this specific type of assay has not been found to be sensitive for the chronic infections found in ME patients.

Treatment[edit]

There are no approved vaccines or antivirals for Coxsackie viruses. However, preliminary research (often in animal models or in vitro) have been shown various compounds to have potential antiviral effects.

Potential coxsackie antivirals
Serotype Pharmaceuticals Herbs Supplements Other
B1 Fluoxetine[6] ursolic acid, Bupleurum kaoi Glycine max *
B2 Fluoxetine[6] simalikalactone D * *
B3 Ampligen[7],Fluoxetine[6], Interferon[8], ribvarin, arbidol, amiloride, itraconazole, oseltamivir, valsartan, olmesartan, lovastatin, mycophenolate, arsenic trioxide shuang huang lian, garlic, curcumin, baicalein, Paris polyphylla, raoulic acid, Dodonaea viscosa, Spatholobus suberectus, Terminalia chebula, Trichosanthes root, Rhodiola rosea, emodin, Astragalus membranaceus[9], acemannan, Sophora flavescens, Isatis tinctoria, cinnamaldehyde, Rheum palmatum chlorogenic acid, fatty acid synthase inhibitors
B4 Fluoxetine[10], oseltamivir Yakammaoto[11], raoulic acid, emodin, Epimedium, Azadirachta indica Dihydroquercetin(Taxifolin)[12] DHEA, 5-androstenediol
B5 arbidol Spatholobus suberectus, Terminalia chebula, Epimedium, hyaluronic acid[13] sodium selenite chlorogenic acid, clinoptilolite
B6 * Azadirachta indica * *
Note: Many of the elements in this table were reproduced from a post on Phoenix Rising. See that post for full citations and/or help us fully cite this table.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15386590
  2. Fegan, KG; Behan, PO; Bell, EJ (1 Jun 1983), "Myalgic encephalomyelitis — report of an epidemic", J R Coll Gen Pract, 33 (251): 335–337, PMID 6310104 
  3. Calder, BD; Warnock, PJ (Jan 1984), "Coxsackie B infection in a Scottish general practice", Jrnl Royal Coll Gen Pract, 34 (258): 15–19, PMID 6319691 
  4. Dowsett, EG; Ramsay, AM; McCartney, RA; Bell, EJ (1 Jul 1990), "Myalgic encephalomyelitis--a persistent enteroviral infection?", Postgraduate Medical Journal, 66 (777): 526–530, PMID 2170962, doi:10.1136/pgmj.66.777.526 
  5. http://www.pnas.org/content/104/12/5115.full
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22751539
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14693549
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1328433
  9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8580483
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25655448
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361333
  12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27145597
  13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21439070


The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history